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 Pre-Historic Period
 * The earliest traces of human existence in India so

far discovered is between 4,00,000 and 2,00,000

BC from Sohan valley (now in Pakistan).
* Neolithic settlements in Indian subcontinent are

not older than 4000 BC.
*Wheat and barley were the first cereals grown by

* The name India was derived from the rivername

Sindhu which is also known as Indus.
*India was originally considered as a part of a larger

area called Jambu-dvipa (The continent of Jambu

Indus Valley Civilisation
*The Harappan culture spread over the whole of

Sind, Baluchistan, almost the whole of Punjab,

northern Rajasthan, Kathiawar and Gujarat.
* Harappa the first Indus site, was discovered by

Dayaram Sahni in 1921. It is situated in the prov-
ince of West Punjab, Montgeomery district in Pa-
* Harappa is located on the bank of river Ravi.
* Mohanjedaro was excavated in 1922 by R.D.Banarjee. It is situated in the Larkhana district in

Sind on the right bank of river Indus (Now in

* The Great Granery, the Great Bath a piece of

woven cotton, a beared man in steatite and a

bronze dancing girl are found from Mohanjedaro.
* The most important feature of Harappan

civilisation was town planning and urbanism.
* The word Mohanjedaro in Sindi language means

‘the mount of the dead’.
* Mohanjodaro was believed to have destructed
* Harappans knew the art of growing cereals, wheat
* Banawali is situated in Hariyana.
 * Chanhudaro, discovered by N. Gopal Majundar

and Mackey, is situated in Sind on the bank of   *Kalibangan, another famous Indus city discov-
ered in 1953 by A Ghosh, is situated in Rajasthan

on the banks of River Ghaggar. Kalibangan stands
* Lothal, first man made port in the world and dock-
yard made of burnt bricks, was discovered in 1953

by S.R. Rao is situated in Gujarat on Bhogava

river near Gulf of Cambay.
* Ropar is the site situated in Punjab on the banks

of river Sutlej. It was discovered in 1953 by YD Sharma.
* Harappan people were the earliest people in the

world to grow cotton and rice.
  People cultivated rice at Lothal and Rangpur and barley at Benawali.
  Harappan people domesticated oxen, buffaloes,

goats, camel, sheeps, domestic fowls and pigs.

Humped bulls were given special importance.

Horses were unknown to the Harappan people.
  Indus people had trade contacts with Persian Gulf

and Mesopotamia.
  The ancient name given to Indus region was

  Indus people used a gold – silver mixture called

  They used bronze and copper but iron was un-
known to them.
  Indus people were the first to use copper in India.
  Harappans used a system of weights and mea-
sures based on 16 and its multiples.
  The chief male deity of the Indus people was

Pasupati Mahadeva (Porto Siva).
  Their Chief female deity was the Mother Goddess.
  They also worshipped fire, pipal trees and Uni-
  Harappan script was Pictographic in nature, which

has not been desciphered so far.
  Harappan seals were made of Terra – Cotta.
  Chess – like game of Harappans was called Sent. 

 Indus Valley civilisation belongs to the

Chalcolithic period dated between 3000 BC and

1500 BC. It is a Bronze Age civilisation or a proto

Historic civilisation.
  The largest number of Harappan sites in post in-
dependent India have been discovered from

  Harappan civilisation extended from Jammu in the

North to Narmada in the South and from Makran

coast of Baluchistan in the West to Meerat in the

  The Northern most point of Indus valley

civilisation was Gumla in Jammu and the South-
ernmost was Daimbad.
  Floods and Earthquakes, change in the course of river Indus, aridity of the area, or drying up of

river Ghaggar, the invasion of Aryans are the sup-
posed reasons for the decline of the civilisation

towards 1500 BC.

Vedic Age
  Vedic Age is the period of Aryans in India from

1500 – 500 BC.
  Most Probable Home of the Aryans is Central

Asia. This theory is of Max Muller.
  The word Aryan literally means high born, but it

generally refers to language.
  The word ‘Veda’ is derived from the word ‘vid’

which means knowledge.
  Vedas are the oldest literary works of mankind.

Vedas are four in number, they are Rig Veda,

Yajurveda, Samaveda and Atharva Veda. Rig veda
  Vedas are collectively known as Sruti

 Vedangas are collectively known as Smriti
  Vedangas are six in number. They are,Shiksha-Phonetic ; Kalpa-Ritual ,Vyakarana-Grammar, Nirukta- Etymology, Chhanda- Metrices and Jyotisha- stronomy
 There are 1028 hymns in Rigveda. It is divided

into ten Mandalas (Chapters).
  Rig Vedic Hymns sung by priests were called

  ‘Sruti’ literature belonged to the Sathyayuga,

Smriti belonged to Treatayuga, Puranas belonged

to Dwaparayuga and Thanthra literature belonged

to Kaliyuga.
  Rigveda starts with the line ‘Agnimele Purohitam’ 

 Famous Gayatri Mantra is contained in the

Rigveda (It is believed to have composed by

  Yajurveda deals with sacrifices and rituals.Yajurvedic hymns are meant to be sung by priests

called ‘Adhavaryu’.
  Yajurveda is derived into two: SuklaYajurveda

(White Yajurveda) and Krishna Yajur Veda (Black

  Sama Veda deals with Music.
  Sama Vedic hymns are meant to be sung by priests

called Udgatri.
  Atharva veda is a collection of spells and incan-
tations. Ayurveda is a part of Atharva Veda, which

deals with medicine.
  The saying, ‘‘War begins in the minds of men’’ is

from Atharva Veda.
  The 10th Mandala of Rigveda contain the

Purusha Sukta hymn which tells about the ori-
gin of caste system.
  Upanishads are 108 in number. Upanishads are

philosophical works
  Upanishads are known as the Jnanakantas of

  The words ‘Sathyameva Jayate’ have been taken

from ‘Mundaka Upanishad’
  Brahdaranya Upanishad was the first to give the

doctrine of Transmigration of Soul and Karma.
  Puranas are the part of Smriti literature. They are

18 in number 6 vishnupuranas, 6 sivapuranas and

6 Brahmapuranas.
  Bhagvata purana is divided into 18 skandas The

10th skanda mentions about the childhood of Sri

  Skanda purana is considered as the largest


 Brahmapurana is also known as Adipurana. 

 Adhyatma Ramayana is included in the

  Cattle was the chief measure of wealth of the vedic

  Rigvedic tribe was referred to as Jana .
  Many clans (vis) formed a tribe.
  The basic unit of society was kula or the family

and Kulapa was the head of the family.
 ‘Visah’ was a cluster of gramas.
  Important tribal assemblies of the Rig Vedic pe-
riod were Sabha, Samiti, Vidhata and Gana.
  The Aghanya mentioned in many passages of

Rigveda applies to cows.
  The Rigvedic religion was primitive animism. 

 Indra was the greatest God of Aryans and Agni

occupied second position.
  Varuna was God of water and Yama was the Lord

of dead.
  Savitri was a solar diety to whom the famous

Gayatri Mantra is attributed to.
  Prithvi was Earth Godess.
  The battle of ten kings mentioned in the Rig Veda

was fought on the division of water of river Ravi.

It was fought on the banks of River Ravi

  Indra was known as Purandara.
  The people called Panis, during the Vedic period

were cattle breeders.
  The Vedic God in charge of truth and moral order

was Varuna.
  Indra Played the role of the Warlord. He is also

considered as the rain god.
  The two priests who played a major part during

the Rig Vedic period were Vasishta and


Later Vedic Period
  The period assigned to Later Vedic Phase is 1000

BC to 600 BC.
  Later Vedic people used particular type of pot-
tery called Painted Grey Ware (PGW)
  The Later Vedic Aryans were familiar with two

seas, the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean.
  Rice became the staple diet of Indian people dur-
ing the Later Vedic Period.
  The term ‘Rashtra’ which indicates territory first

appeared in the later vedic period.
  Mention of the word ‘Sudras’ – Rigveda (10th Mandala)
 Mention of the ‘Gotra’ is found in the


 Origin of Kingship is found in Aitareya

  ‘Soma’ was an intoxicating drink mentioned in

the 9th Mandala of the Rig Veda.
  Mention of the word Varna is found in Rigveda.
  The fourfold division of the society is found in

the 10th Mandala of the Rigveda.
  Mention about the Varnashranadhrama is found

in the Jabla Upanishad. 

 The Doctrine of Trimurti is found in the

Maitrayani Upanishad.
  Mention about the origin of Universe is found in

the Rig Veda (10th Mandala).
  Purohita Senani and Vrajapati were the impor-
tant functionaries who assisted the king in day-
to-day administration.
  The officer who enjoyed authority over the pas-
ture land was called Vrajapati.
  The king’s power increased during the Later Vedic

  First law giver of ancient India was Manu. He

wrote ‘Manusmrithi’.
  Manusmrithi was translated into English by Wil-
liam Jones.
  Shyma Shastri translated Arthasastra into En-
  Bali was a tax, which the king used to collect from

the people of the Vedic period.
  Aryans used iron for the first time India.
  Horse, Iron, Sugarcane, Pulses etc reached India

by the coming of Aryans.
  The God who occupied supreme position in the

Later Vedic Period was Prajapati.
  Rudra was regarded as preserver and protector

of the people.
  The most important functionary who assisted the

Vedic king was Purohita.
  Manarchy was the normal form of Government in

the vedic period.

  Each Tribal republic was headed by Ganapati or

  The Vedic Education system revealed through

‘Frog Hymn’ in the Rigveda and ‘Wedding Hymn’

describe the oldest marriage rituals.
  Max Mullar was the first person to speak of ‘Ary-
ans’ as a race.

  Hinduism has two epics Ramayana and

  Mahabharata was written by ‘Vyasa’.Mahabharata

is also known as Jayasamhita, Satasahasri

Samhita and the fifth veda.
  Mahabharata has 1,17,000 hymns in it.
  Mahabharata is divided into 18 Purvas, an ap-
pendix Harivamsa is considered as 19th Purva.
  12th Purva is the largest and 7th is the smallest. 

 It describes the 18 days battle of Kurukshetra.
  Stories of Sakuntalam, Pralayam, Ramcharitam,

Rishysringan, Satyavan Savitri,Nala and

Damayanthi etc are included in the Mahabharata.
  Valmiki is the author of Ramayana.
  Ramayana has 24000 hymns and is divided into

Seven Skandas (Kandas)
  Bhagavatgita is included in the Bhishma Purva of

Mahabharata. It is divided into 18 chapters and

has about 700 hymns.
  Vardhamana Mahavira was believed to have born

in 540 BC in Kundala Grama in Vaishali the capital

Six systems of Indian Philosophy
  Samkya ………………………….. Sage Kapila
  Yoga ………………………………….. Patanjali
  Vaisheshika ………………………… Kannada
  Nyaya ………………. Akshapada (Gautama)
  Vedanta Gaudapada and Shankaracharya.
  Mimamsa……………………………… Jaimini

of Vajji. Now it is in Mussafar district in Bihar.
  He belonged to Jnatrika Kshatriya clan.
  Mahavira’s family was connected with the royal

family of Magadha.
  The word ‘Jaina’ was originated from the word

‘Jina’ which means conqueror.
  Jainism speaks about 24 thinthankaras. Mahavira

was the 24th Thirthankara, who is considered as

the founder of Jainism.
  Rishabha was the first Thirthankara. Neminath

and Parswanatha were the 22nd and 23rd

Thirthankaras respectively.
  Bhagavatapurana, Vishnupurana, Vayupurana,

etc mentions about Rishabhadeva.
  Sidhartha, ruler of Nandadynasty which ruled

Kundalapuri, was the father of Vardhmana

  Mahavira’s mother was Trissala and Yasodha was

his wife.
  Jameli was the daughter of Mahavira.
  Mahavira is also known as ‘Vaishalia’ as he was

born in Vaishali.
  He got Kaivalya at the age of 42 under a Sal tree

on the bank of river Rajpalika near Village

  At first Mahavira followed the practice of an as-
cetic group called Nirgrandhas , which earlier led

by Parswanath.
  Makhali Gosala was a companion of Mahavira.

Who later founded the Ajivika sect.
  Mahavira attained Nirvana at the age of 72 at

Pavapuri near Rajagriha in 468 BC.
  Jains observe the day of his nirvana as Dipavali. 

 Gautama Indrabhuti is considered as his first

  Jain sacred texts are called Angas.
  Jain texts were written under Bhadrabahu in BC

  Jain texts were written in the Prakrit language of

  ‘Ahimsa Paramo Dharma’ is the sacred hymn of Jainism.
  Ahimsa, Satya, Asateya, Aparigriha and

Brahmacharya are the five major principles of Jainism
  Brahmacharya is the principle added by Mahavira. 

 Mahavira taught the three Jewels of Jainism

(Triratna) – Right Faith, Right Knowledge and

Right Conduct.
  The Jains repudiated the authority or infallibility

of the vedas. The Jains rejected the concept of

Universal soul or a supreme power as the creator

and sustainer of the Universe.
  Jainism does not condemn the Varna system.

Mahavira believed that all individuals irrespec-
tive of caste can strive for liberation through good

deeds and living.
  First Jain council was held at Pataliputra in the

fourth century BC under the leadership of
  Second Jain council was held at Vallabhipur in

third Century BC under the leadership of

Aryaskandil Nagarjuna Suri.
  Third Jain council was held at Vallabhipur in

Gujarat in 5th Century AD under the leadership

of Devardhi Kshamasramana.
  Jainism was divided into two sects Swetambaras

and Digambaras after the first Jain Council.
  Digambaras are sky-clad or naked and

swetambaras are clad in white. 

 Gomateshwara statue is

situated in Sravana
  ‘Syad Vada’ is a Jain phi-
losophy of Knowledge.
  Kharavela of Kalinga

gave patronage to
  Mahavir Jayanti and

Rakshabandan are the

festive occassions of
  Temple on the Mount Abu in Rajasthan is a fa-
mous centre of Jain worship.
 Jain Temple at Sravanabelgola in Hassan district

in Mysore is known as ‘Kasi of the Jains’.
  Names of Rishabhadeva and Arishtanemi are also

mentioned in the Rigveda.
  Chandragupta Maurya the founder of the

Mauryan Empire, abdicated the throne towards

the end of his life, accepted Jainism reached

Sravanabelgola and died there.

  Buddhism originated in the 6th century BC. 

 Gautama Buddha the founder of Buddhism was

born in Lumbini in Kapilavasthu on the border of

Nepal in 563 BC.
  Buddha’s mother

Mahamaya died seven

days after his birth. He

was brought up by his

aunt Mahaprajpati

Gautami, hence he got

the name ‘Gautama’.
  First Buddhist nun was

  Budha’s birth place is

now known as Binla.
  Budhas orginal name was Sidhartha.
  Buddha belonged to the Sakhya clan of

  His father was Subhodhana.
  Buddha’s wife was Yasodhara and his son was

  Four sights changed his mind and initiated him to

spiritual life they were death, old age, sadness

and sufferings.
  He left home at the age of 29 along with his chari-
oteer Channa and favourite horse Kandaka. This

incident is known as Mahanishkramana.
  Buddha got enlightenment at Bodha Gaya, on the banks

of Niranjana river in Bihar at the Age of 35.
  After enlightenment Buddha came to be known

as ‘thadhagatha’. He is also known as

  Buddha made his first sermon after enlightenment

at a deer park at Saranath in Uttar Pradesh. This

incident is known as ‘Dharmachakra

  Buddha’s first teacher was Alara Kalama and sec-
ond teacher Udraka Ramaputra.
  During his first sermon at Sarnath, Buddha de-
scribed the ‘four noble truths’ and the eight fold

  Buddha made his sermons in Pali language and

the early Buddhist texts were also written in Pali

  Buddha died at the age of 80 in 483 BC at

Kushinagara in UP. This was known as

Parinirvana. Buddha died by consuming poi-
soned meat or poisoned mushroom.
  Last meals of Buddha was served by a blacksmith

  His last words were All composite things decay,

strive diligently.
  Four noble truths of Buddhism are:

life is full of misery, desire is the cause of mis-
ery, killing desires would kill sorrows, Desire

can be killed by following the eight-told path.
  The eight fold path of Buddhism are:

Right Belief, Right Thought, Right Speech, Right Living, Right Effort, Righ Recollection, Right Meditation
 1. Rishabhdev

2. Ajitnath

3. Sambhavnath

4. Abhinandan

5. Sumitnath

6. Padmaprabhu

7. Suparsavanath

8. Suridhi

9. Chandraprabh

10. Sheetal Nath

11. Shreyanshanath

12. Vasupujya

13. Vimalnath

14. Anandanath

15. Dharmanath

16. Shantinath

17. Kunthunath

18. Arnath

19. Mallinath

20. Munisuvrata nath

21. Neminath

22. Arishtanemi

23. Parshvanath

24. Mahavira
Right Action,
 Buddhism does not recognise the existence of

God and Soul (Atman)
  Buddha accepted the traditional belief in transmi-
gration of the soul and law of Karma.
  The ‘three jewels’of Buddhism are – Buddha,

Dhamma and Sangha.
  The first Buddhist council was held in 483 BC at

Sattaparni (Rajagriha) under the presidentship

of Mahakashyapa and under the patronage of king

Ajatasatru of Magadha..
  Vinayapitaka and Suddhapitaka were codified at

the first council.
  Second Buddhist council was held in 383 BC at

Vaishali under the presidentship of Sabhakami

and under the patronage of king Kalashoka.
  At the second Buddhist council Buddhism was

divided into two Staviravadins and

Mahasankikas which later came to be known a

Hinayana and Mahayana respectively.
  Third council of Buddhism was held in 250 BC at

Pataliputhra under the presidentship of

Mogaliputta Tissa and under the patronage of

Ashoka the Great.
  Abhidhamma Pitika was codified at the third council.
  At the third council decision was also taken to

send missionaries to spread Buddhism.
  The fourth Buddhist council was held in the first

century AD at Kundalavana in Kashmir under

the President-ship of Vasumithra and Ashvagosha

and under the patronage of Kanishka.
  Clear division of Buddhism into Hinayana and

Mahayana tookplace at the fourth council.
  Upagupta converted Ashoka to Buddhism.
  Ashvagosha was the first biographer of Buddha

who wrote Budhacharitam in Sanskrit.
  Vasubandu is known as Second Buddha.
  Ashoka is known as the Constantine of Bud-
  Ashoka accepted Buddhism after the battle of

Kalinga in BC 261.
  Buddhist worshipping centre is known as Pagoda.
  Viharas are the Buddhist monastries.
  Vajrayana was a sect of Buddhism which believed

in achieving salvation through Mantras and

  ‘Jataka stories’ describe the stories related to

the birth of Buddha. They are 500 in number.
  Holy book of Buddhism is Tripitika- Vinayapitika,

Suddhapitika and Abhidhamapitika are collec-
tively known as Tripitika.
  Bimbisara of Magadha was a contemporary of

  Kanishka who worked to spread Buddhism like

Ashoka is known a Second Ashoka.
  Ashoka sent his son and daughter, Mahendra

and Sanghamitra to SriLanka to spread Bud-

 Sri Buddha is known as the ‘Light of Asia’ He

was named as such by Edvin Arnold.
  Edvin Arnold’s ‘Light of Asia’ was translated into

Malayalam by Nalappad Narayanamenon.
  Hinayanism is wide spread in Sri Lanka.
  The Bodhi tree at Gaya was cut down by Sasanka,

a Bengal ruler.
  The chief Buddhist monastery was at Nalanda,

which was under the patronage of Pala kings.
  Previous Buddhas are known as ‘Bodhisatvas’.
  Milandapanho a book of Nagasena describes how

Greek king Menandar accepted Buddhism.

Sangham Age
  First five centuries of the Christian Era are com-
monly known as Sangham Age.
 Birth ………………………………… Lotus and Bull

Renunciation …………………………………. Horse

Enlightenment ………………………….. Bodhitree

First Sermon ……………………. Dharma Chakra

Nirvana (Death) ………………………. Foot prints
 Sangham was an Assembly of literature held at

  References to the Sangham Age can be found in

the inscriptions of Ashoka, and Kharavela of

Kalinga and in the Indica of Megastenese.
  The literature of the Sangham Age was written

mostly in the form of Poetry.
  In the Sangham Age, the most common form of

government was hereditary monarchy. The vil-
lage was the fundamental unit of administration.
  Small village Assemblies during the Sangham Age

were known as Arai.
  Tradition refers to three sangham lasting for 9,900


 Language of the Sangham literature was Tamil
  People of the Sangham Age mainly worshiped

  The greatest work of the Tamil literature of the

Sangham Age is Tholkappium written by

  Tholkappium is considered as the earliest sur-
viving Tamil literary work. It is a book on Tamil

  The Capital of the Pandyas was at Madhurai.
  Uraiyur was the capital of Cholas, known for cot-
ton trade. 

 Vanchi was the capital of Cheras.
  Silappadigaram, Manimegalai and

Jeevakachintamani are the three epics of

Sangham literature.
  Korkai was the main seaport of the Pandyas. 

 Megastanese described Pandya Kingdom as

‘Pearl’ as it was ruled by women.
  Kaveripumpatnam was the main sea port of the

  Silappatigaram as written by Ilango Adikal. It

describes the love story of Kovalan and Kannaki
  Nedujezhian is the Pandyan king mentioned in

  Satanar wrote ‘Manimekhalai’ which is also an

epic and tells about the story of the daughter of

Kannaki and Kovalan.

 Manimekhalai gives reference about Buddhism.
  II and XIII rock edicts of Ashoka mention about

the South Indian kingdoms.
  Karikala most prominent among early Cholas is

known as the master of seven notes of music.
  ‘Bharatam’ was a Tamil version of Mahabharata

sung by Perundevanar.
  ‘Manimekhalai’ is looked upon as the Tamil Od-
  Thirukkural is known as Tamil Bible compiled

by Thiruvalluvar. His statue is seen near

Vivekanandappara in Kanyakumari.
  The greatest of the Chera rulers was

Senguttuvanchera also known as ‘Red Chera’.He

built a temple for Kannaki.
  The famous Chera port Muziris was a great cen-
tre of Indo-Roman Trade.
  The largest single tax collected during the Sangha

period was the land tax called Karai.
  The founder of later Cholas was Rajaraja I The

most important ruler of this dynasty was Rajendra

  Rajendra Chola is also known as ‘Gagaikonda

Chola’ He later named his capital as ‘Gangaikonda

  RajaRaja I built ‘Brihadeswara temple’ at Tanjore.
  Cholas were well known for their naval supremacy

and efficient village administration.
  The Utharameroor inscription tells about the lo-
cal self government under the cholas.
  Thirukkural of Thiruvalluvar is the Tamil work

which is known also as the fifth Veda.
  Jivaka Chintamani the third epic of the Tamil was

written by Tirukkadevar.
 Vikram Era …………………………………. 58 BC
 Saka Era …………………………………… 78 AD
 Gupta Era ……………………………….. 320 AD
 Hijra Era …………………………………. 622 AD
 Kollam Era ………………………………. 825 AD
 Illahi Era ………………………………… 1583 AD
 Roman king built a temple of Augustus at


Literary Activities in Ancient India
  Ashtadhyayi by Panini (5th C.BC) the earliest

grammar book also called Bhagavati Sutra.
  Mahabhashya was written by Patanjali.
  Manusmriti was a law book composed between

200 BC and 200AD.
  Arthashastra by Kautilya deals with statecrafts

is a major source of Mauryan administration.
  Indica by ‘Megastenes’ is a source of Mauryan

society and administration.
  Chandsutra was written by Pingala.
  Buddhacharita by Aswaghosha is the earliest

biography of Buddha. It was written in Pali lan-
  Raghuvamsa by Kalidasa is an epic based on

  Naishad Charita by Sri Harsha contains story of

Nala and Damayanti.

  Natyashastra by Bharatamuni is the earliest

known work in Sanskrit.
  Malavikagnimithram, Vikramorvashiyan and

Abhinjana Syakuntalam are dramas written by

  Ratnavali, Naganandaand Priyadarshika are dra-
mas written by Harshavardhana.

Lyric Poetry
  Meghadutam by Kalidasa
  Srinagarashataka, Nitishataka and

Vairagyasataka were written by Bhartrihari.
  Gita Govinda was written by Jayadeva.

Historical writing
  Harshacharita – Written by Banabhatta
  Vikramamangadeva charita – written by Bilhana.

Prose Literature
  Dasakumaracharitam …………………… Dandin
  Vasavadatta ……………………………….. Subandu
  Brihat Kathamanjari …………….. Kshemendra
  Kathasaritsagara ……………………… Somadeva
  Panchathantra ……………………. Vishnusharma
  Hitopadesha ……………………… Narayan Pandit
  Kamasutra and Arya Manjushree ….. Vatsyayana 

 Pavandhoot …………………………………… Dhoyi
  Swapna Vasavadatta ……………………….. Bhasa
  Matavilasa Prahasana ……. Mahendravarman I
  Si-yu-ki ………………………………. Hiuen Tsang
  Fo-kuoki ……………………………………. Fa-hien
  Panchasidhantika …………………… Varahamihir
  Suryasidhantika and Aryabhatiyam….Aryabhatta 

 Nitisara ………………………………… Kamandaka
  Charak Samhita …………………………. Charaka
  Hastayurveda …………………………….. Palkapya
  Mitakshara …………………………… Vigneswara
  Dayabhaga …………………………..Jimutavahana
  Sidhanta Siromani ……………. Bhaskaracharya
  Nighantu ……………………………… Dhanvantari
  Mudrarakshasa ……………………. Vishakadatta
  Prabhanda Chintamani ………….. Meruthunga
  Geography of India ………………………. Ptolemy
  Brihat Kathakosh ………………………. Harisena
  Mrichakatika …………………………….. Sudraka
  Prithviraj Vijaya ………………………… Jayanak
 Nala Vemba …………………………….. Pugalendi
 Magadhan Empire
  In the 6th century BC there originated 16

Mahajanapadas in North India
  Four prominent royal dynasties stand out promi-
nently out of these Janapadas. They were

Haryankas of Magadha, the Ikshvakus of Kosala,

the Pauravas of Vatsa and the Pradyotas of Avanti.

 Haryanka is the name of a new dynasty founded

in Magadha by Bimbisara.
  Bimbisara founded the dynasty by defeating the

 Bimbisara was a contemporary of Buddha.
  Magadha became a supreme power in North In-
dia under Ajatasatru. So Ajatasatru is consid-
ered as the founder of Magadhan Supremacy.
  Pataliputra and Rajagriha were the capitals of

Magadhan kingdom.
  Magadha falls in the Patna region of Bihar. 

 Haryankas were overthrown by Sisunaga and he

founded the Sisunaga dynasty there.
  Kalasoka the son and successor of Sisunaga was

succeeded by Mahapadma Nanda and he

founded the Nanda dynasty.
  Ajatasatru’s successor Udayin was the founder

of the city of Pataliputra.

Persian Invasion
  The Achaemenian king of Persia, Darius (522 –

486 BC) captured some territories the east of

Sindhu in 518 BC.
  The Persian domination over Indian territory

lasted upto 330 BC.
  Xerxes was the persian ruler who enlisted Indi-
ans in his army.
  The Kharoshti script was brought to India by


Alexander’s Invasion
  Alexander was born in 356 BC as the son of King

Philip II of Mascedonia.
  Epirus or Olympias was Alexanders mother.
  Aristotle was Alexander’s teacher.
  He became the king in 336 BC
  He defeated the Persian ruler Darius III.
  Alexander founded the city of Alexandria in


 In 326 BC Alexander defeated Porus

(Purushothama) the ruler of Punjab and Captured

Taxila through the battle of Hydaspes on the

banks of river Jhelum.
  Ambhi the ruler of Taxila invited Alexander to In-
  Alexander died of Malaria at the age of 33 in 323

BC while he was in Babylon.
  Alexander was cremated at Alexandria. 

 Alexander was known as Shehansha in Persia and

Sikhandar-I-Asam in Indo-Pak region.
  The Last general of Alexander in India was

  Alexander’s first General in India was Selucus

  Alexander IV succeeded Alexander as the

Masedonian King.
  Alexander’s teacher Aristotle is considered as the

father of Politics, Biology, Taxonomy and the Sci-
ence of Logic.

Mauryan Empire (321-185 BC)
  Major sources for the study of Mauryan Empire

are the Arthasastra of Kautilya and Indika of

  Chandragupta Maurya was the founder of

Mauryan Empire.
  Details about his early life are not available 

 He is believed to have belonged to Moriya Clan,

hence got the name Maurya.
  It is also said that his mother was Mura a women

of lower birth hence got the name Maurya.
  In some texts he is referred to as Vrishala and

  He conspired with Chanakya (Kautilya or

Vishnugupta) the minister of Nanda to overthrew

the last Nanda ruler DhanaNanda.
  Chandragupta Maurya ascended the throne in

BC 321.
  He fought against Selucus in 305 BC. Selucus

surrendered before him and sent an ambassador,

Megasthenese to the court of Chandragupta

  Chandragupta’s Governor Pushygupta con-
structed the famous Sudarshana lake.
  ChandraGupta Maurya was converted to Jainism,

abdicated the throne in favour of his son

Bindusara, passed his last days at
Sravanabelagola (Near Mysore) where he died in

298 BC.
  Chandragupa Maurya was responsible for the po-
litical unification of North India for the first time.
  Bindusara was a follower of Ajivika sect.
  Bindusara was known as Amitragatha.
  Ashoka ascended the throne in 273BC and ruled

upto 232 BC.
  He was known as ‘Devanampriya priyadarsi the

beautiful one who was the beloved of Gods.
  Maski and Gujara Edicts of Ashoka gave the

name Devanampriya Priyadarsi.
  Buddhist tradition says Ashoka killed 99 of his

brothers to capture the throne.
  Ashoka was the first king in Indian history who

had left his records engraved on stones.
  Ashokan inscriptions were written in Kharoshti

and Brahmi scripts.
  Ashoka fought the Kalinga war in 261 BC Kalinga

is in modern Orissa.
  Ashokan inscriptions were deciphered by James

  After the battle of Kalinga Ashoka became a Bud-
dhist, being shocked by the horrors of the war.

 Ashoka was initiated to Buddhism by Upagupta

or Nigrodha a disciple of Buddha.
  For the propagation of Buddhism Ashoka started

the institution of Dharmamahamatras.
  The IV Major Rock Edict of Ashoka tells about

the practice of Dharma
  The Major Rock Edict XII of Ahoka deals with

the conquest of Kalinga.
  Ashoka held the third Buddhist council at his

capital Pataliputra in 250BC under the

presidentship of Moggaliputa Tissa.
  He sent his son and daughter to Sri Lanka for the

spread of Buddhism (Mahendra and Sanghamitra)
  Ashoka spread Buddhism to SriLanka and Nepal.
  He is known as the Constantine of Buddhism.
  In his Kalinga Edict he mentions ‘‘All man are as

my children’’.
  Ceylones ruler Devanmpriya Tissa was Ashoka’s

first convert to Buddhism.
  Ashoka ruled for 40 years and died in 232 BC.
  The emblem of the Indian Republic has been

adopted from the four lion capital of one of

Ashokas pillars which is located in Saranath.
  Rock-cut architecture in India made a beginning

during Ashoka’s reign.
  Brihadratha the last Mauryan ruler was killed by

Pushyamitra Sunga who founded the Sunga Dy-
nasty in 185 BC.
  Megasthenese the first foreign traveller to India

mentions about the existence of seven castes in

India during the Mauryan period.
  Stanika in Mauryan administration refers to tax


Post Mauryan Period

Sunga Dynasty (185-71 BC)
  Sunga Dynasty was founded by Pushyamitra

Sunga the commander-in-chief of last Mauryan

king, Brihadratha.
  Kalidasa’s drama Malavikagnimitram is about the

love story of Pushyamitra’s son Agnimitra and

  Last ling of sunga dynasty was Devabhuti.

Kanva Dynasty (72 BC – 27 BC)
  Kanva dynasty was founded by Vasudeva Kanva

in 72 BC after defeating the last Sunga ruler

  This dynasty ruled for a period of 45 years. 

 Vasudeva, Bhumimitra, Narayana and Susuman

were the rulers of Kanva dynasty.

Cheta (Cheti) Dynasty of Kalinga
  The Cheti Dynasty was believed to have founded

by Maha Meghavahana
  The Hatigumbha inscription of Kharavela, of the

Important Mauryan Officers

Samaharta ……………. Collector of Revenue

Sannidata ………………….. Head of Treasury

Dandapala ……………………… Head of Police

Durga Pala ………………. Head of Royal Fort

Pradeshikas …. Head of District Administration

Prashasti ……………………..Head of Prisons
Kalinga ruler gives details about the Chedis of

  Kharavela was a follower of Jainism.

Satavahanas (235 BC – 100BC)
  Satavahanas were the most powerful ruling dy-
nasty after the Mauryas.
  Satavahanas were also known as Andhras. 

 Satavahanas were the Indian rulers who prefixed

their mother’s name along with their names.
  Most important Satavahana ruler was

Gautamiputra Satakarni.
  Satavahanas were Brahmanas.
  Nagarjuna Konda and Amaravati in

Andhrapradesh became important seats of Bud-
dhist culture under the Satavahanas.
  The two common structures of Satavahanas were

the temple called Chaitya and the monastery called

  Satavahanas mostly issued lead coins.
  The official language of the Satavahanas was


Indo Greeks
  First to invade India were the Greeks who were

called Indo-Greeks. 

 The most famous Indo-Greek ruler was Menander

with his Capital at Sakala in Punjab (Modern

  The Indo-Greeks were the first to issue gold coins

in India.
  The introduction of Hellenistic art features into

India were also the contribution of Indo-Greek rule.
  Menander was converted into a Buddhist by Bud-
dhist monk Nagasena (Nagarjuna) 

 Indo-Greeks were the first to issue coins bearing

the figure of kings.
  Demitrius, the king of Bacteria invaded India

about 190BC. He is considered as Second

Alexander (But the Indian ruler who accepted the

name second Alexander (Sikandar-i-sani)

Alauddin Khilji)
  Indo-Greeks were the first to introduce military

governorship in India.

The Parthians (19 – 45 AD)

 Parthians also known as Pahalavas were Iranian

  Gondophernes was the greatest of the Parthian

  St. Thomas is said to have came to India for the

propagation of Christianity during the period of


The Sakas (90 BC – Ist AD)
  Sakas were also known as Scythians.
  The first Saka king in India was Maues or Moga

who established Saka power in Gandhara.
  The most famous of the Saka rulers in Western

India was Rudra Daman I. His achievements are

highlighted in his Junagarh inscription written in

150 AD.
  Junagarh inscription of Rudradaman was the

first inscription in Sanskrit.
  Ujjayini was the capital of Rudradaman.


 Kushans are also known as Yuch-chis or

  Kushans came to India from North Central Asia.
  First great Kushana king was Kujala Kadphises

or Kadphises I.
  The most famous

Kushana ruler was


 He became the ruler in 78

AD and started Saka Era

in 78 AD.
  The Capital of Kanishka

was Peshawar or

  Kanishka convened the fourth Buddhist council

in Kashmir.
 Scholars like, Parsva, Vasumitra, Ashvaghosha,

Charaka and Nagarjuna were the courtiers of

  The Gandhara School of Art received royal pa-
tronage under the Kushans.
  Kanishka patronised Mahayana form of Bud-
  Kanishka is righty called the ‘Second Ashoka’ 

 Kanishka was the first king who inscribed the

image of Lord Buddha on his coins.
  Kanishka started the Saka era in 78 AD. The first

month of Saka era is Chaithra and the last month

is Phalguna.
  Vasudeva was the last great king of Kushana

  Kushana school of art is also referred to as the

Mathura school.
 Gupta Empire (320 – 540 AD)
  Gupta Empire was founded by Sri Gupta.
  Ghatotkacha was the second ruler.
  Chandra Gupta I was the real founder of the Gupta

Empire. He came to the throne in 320 AD.

 He was the first ruler to adopt the title

  He laid the foundation of Gupta Era on 26 Febru-
ary 320 AD.
  Samudra Gupta succeeded Chandragupta I in 335

  The Allahabad Pillar inscription composed by

Harisena contains information about

Samudragupta’s conquests.
  Allahabad Pillar inscription is also known as

  Samudra Gupta is also known as ‘Linchchavi

Dauhitra’’. (son of the daughter Kumaradevi of

  Samudra Gupta is described as ‘Indian Napoleon’

by V.A. Smith.
  Samudra Gupta composed ‘‘Vahukabita’’ and had

the title ‘‘Kaviraja’’.
  Sanskrit was the court language of the Guptas. 

 India became ‘‘Greater India’’ under Samudra

  Samudra Gupta was an accomplished Veena

  Chandragupta II the greatest of Gupta rulers was

popularly known as Vikramaditya.

Historically Important Places

Ayodhya Birth place of Sri Rama (UP)

Amber Palace Rajasthan

Aghakhan Palace Pune (Maharashtra)

(Gandhi and Kasturba were

kept in prison here)


Kedarnath Holy place of Hindus

Amarnath Pilgrim centre (Kashmir)

Elephanta caves Near Mumbai

Ellora Caves Maharashtra – 34 cavetemples

Rajgir Jain Temple in Bihar

Golden Temple Amritsar – Harmandir Sahib of

Golgumbus Bijapur (Karnataka)

Tanjore Capital of Cholas –

Charminar Hyderabad (Monument of

Konark Temple Orissa (Sun Temple)

Qutab Minar Delhi

Khajuraho Near Bhopal (M.P.) 80 temples

Mahabalipuram Centre of Pallava architecture

Kurukshetra Battle of Mahabarata (in

TajMahal Agra (UP) Built by Shah Jahan

Sanchi Buddhist Stupa (Madhya

Haridwar Holy Place of Hindus

(Hindu, Buddha – Jaina)


Tomb of Muhammed Adil Shah

Brihadveswara Temple

Plague eradication)

(Tamil Nadu)



 He adopted the title ‘Sakari’ after his victory over

Rudradaman II of Gujarat.
  Fa hein, the Chinese traveller, visited India dur-
ing his period.
  The exploits of Chandragupta II are glorified in

an iron pillar inscription fixed near Qutub Minar.

 Chandragupta II adopted the title Vikramaditya

as a mark of his victory over the Sakakshatraps.
  ‘Nine gems’ or ‘Navratnas’ was a famous Scho-
lastic Assembly in the court of Chandragupta II.

The members in the Ninegems were – Kalidasa,

Kadakarbhara, Kshapanaka, Varahmihira,

Vararuchi, Vethalabhatta, Dhanvantari,

Ammarasimha, Sanku. 

 Chandragupta II was succeeded by his son

Kumaragupta I.
  Skandagupta Vikramaditya was the last great

ruler of Gupta Empire.
  Skandagupta Vikramaditya was the only hero in

Asia and Europe who defeated the Hunas in their

glorious period.
  Vishnu Gupta was the last ruler who died in 570

  Mantriparishad assisted the king in administra-
  Most important Industry of the Gupta period was

  Period of the Gupta is compared to ‘Periclean

Age of Greece’, ‘Augustan Age of Rome’ and

‘Elzabethan Age of England’.
  Period of the Guptas is considered as the Golden

Age in the history of India.
  Earlier Guptas had their capital at Prayag in

Allahabad, later it was shifted to Ujjain by

Chandragupta II.
  The most important officers in the Gupta empire

were Kumaramatyas.
  The royal seal of the Guptas bore the emblem of

  Aryabhatta was the first to treat Mathematics as

a separate subject. He wrote Aryabhattiyam. He

belonged to the Gupta period. Aryabhatta was

the first to use Decimal System.
  Panchsidhanta, Brihat Jataka, Laghu Jataka and

Brihat Samhita are the works of Varahamihira.
  The best specimen of the Gupta paintings are seen

at Ajanta caves and the Bhaga caves.
  The Gupta period marked the beginning of Indian

temple architecture.
  Guptas issued large number of gold coins in In-
  Guptas largely patronised art and architecture. 

 Guptas patronised the Gandhara school of art,

Madhura School of Art and the Andhra School

of Art.
  The Fresco paintings in the Ajanta caves are ex-
amples of the art of the Guptas.
  The chief source of income was land revenue.
  The position of women declined during the Gupta

  A renowned physician of

the Gupta period was

  Nalanda and Taxila were

the two universities of this

  Kalidasa is generally

called ‘‘Indian

Shakespeare’ and the

‘Prince of Indian Poets’.
 Books on Sciences
 Chandra Vyakaran …………… Chandragomin

Amar Kosh ………………………… Amar Singh

Niti Shastra …………………………. Kamandak 

Kamasutra ………………………….. Vatsya yana
 Panchasiddhantika……………. Varahamihira

Ashtanga Hridaya ………………….Vaghbhatta

Hastyaurveda …………………………. Pulkapya

Sankhyakarika …………………. Iswarkrishna

 Patanjali founded ‘Yoga Shastra’, a school of

Hindu philosophy during this period.
 The Hunas
  The Huns were a nomadic and barberic race of

Central Asia.
  They were defeated by Skanda Gupta.
  In the last quarter of the 5th century AD, the

Hunas established an independent kingdom in

the Punjab.
  Toramana and Mihirakula were important Huna

  In 510 AD Bhanu Gupta defeated Toramana.
  Narasimha Gupta defeated Mihirakula.
  The Hunas gave rise to the Kshatriya Rajaputs.
  Sialkot was Mihirakula’s capital.

The Maitrakas of Valabhi
  They were of Iranian origin, they ruled Gujarat.
  Valabhi was their Capital.
  Siladitya I (606 – 612 AD) was the first indepen-
dent king of Maithrakas.

The Vakatakas (250-500 AD)
  The Vakatakas established their power in Deccan.
  Their capital was Vidarbha.
  The founder of the dynasty was Vindhyasakthi.
  Vakatakas were Brahmins.
  Vakatakas were later defeated by the Chalukyas

of Badani.

Harsha Vardhana (606 – 647AD)
  The last Hindu Emperor of North India was

Harshavardhana (Last Hindu king of Delhi was

Prithviraj Chauhan)
  Harshavardhana belonged to the Pushyabhuti

Dynasty, also known as Vardhana Dynasty.
  The Pushyabhuti dynasty was founded by

  Harsha came to power in 606 AD (Harsha Era)
  He made Kanauj his new capital from Taneswar.
  Original name of Harsha was Siladitya.
  Chinese traveller Hieun Tsang visited India dur-
ing his reign.
  Harsha summoned a religious assembly at Prayag.
  Hieun Tsang said Indians were ‘‘Truthful people

although quick tempered’’
  Harsha’s biography ‘Harsha Charita’ was writ-
ten by his court poet Banabhatta. He also wrote

  Harsha Vardhana was a poet and dramatist.

Ratnavali, Priyadarshika and Nagananda are the

works of Harshavardhana.
  Harsha Vardhana was defeated by the Chalukyan

king Pulikeshin II in AD 634.
  Harshavardhanas empire was the last Buddhist

empire in India.
  After Harsha, the Karkotas of Kashmir established

their power.
  Mahendravarman I and Pulikeshin II were the

contemporaries of Harshavardhana.
  Matanga, Divakar, Jayasena and Bhartrihari

were the famous scholars in the court of

  Harsha founded the Harsha Era in 606 AD.

Chalukyas of Badami
  In 535 Pulikeshin I founded a small kingdom with

the Capital at Vatapipura (Modern Badami)
  He was succeeded by Kirtivarman and

  Pulikeshin II was the most famous ruler of the

Chalukya dynasty.
  The greatest achievement of Pulikeshin II was

the defeat he inflicted on Harshavardhana.
  The Pallava king Narasimhavarman captured

Vatapi and adopted the title ‘Vatapikonda’.
  Pulikeshin II defated the Pallavas and captured

Kanchi. He also defeated Cheras, Cholas and

  Kirtivarman, the last ruler of this dynasty was

defeated by the Rashtrakutas and the Chalukyanrule came to an end in 757 AD.
  The magnificient temples of Belur and Halebid

and the Elephanta caves were constructed during

the Chalukyan period.
  From the Chronological point of view Chalukyas

can be divided into four

The Chalukyas of Vatapi (535 – 642 AD)

The later Chalukyas of Vatapi (655 – 753 AD)

The Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi (615 – 1076)

The Later Western Chalukyas of Kalyani (973-

1190 AD)
  Simhavishnu was the founder of the Pallava dy-
  Narasimhavarman , a Pallava ruler, defeated

Pulikeshin II and adopted the title Vatapikonda.
  Narasimhavarman I was called Mahamalla which

meants a wrestler.
  The book Mattavilasa Prahasana was written by

Narashimvarman I.
  The Ratha temples at Mahabalipuram (Seven Pa-
godas) were created by Narasimhavarman I.
  Dandin the author of Dasakumaracharitam, lived

in the court of Narasimhavarman II.
  Narasimhavarman II was the most important ruler

of the Pallava dynasty.
  He founded Kailasanatha Temple and the Shore

Temple at

  Rashtrakuta dynasty was founded by

Dandidurga in 753 AD. With the capital at

Manyakhed or Malkhed.
  Rashtrakuta ruler Amoghavarsha I wrote

‘Kavirajamarga’ which is the earliest Kannada

work on poetics. He also wrote Prasnottarmalika.
  The Kailasanath Temple at Ellora was founded

by the Rashtrakuta ruler Krishna I.
  Krishna III (940 -968) was the last great ruler of

Rashtrakuta dynasty.
  The Rashtrakuta power was overthrown by Thiala


  The Pratiharas are also called Gurjara – Pratiharas

– belonging to the 36 clans of Rajputs.
  The dynasty was founded by Nagabhatta I (725-

  Nagabhatta II made Kanauj his capital. 

 Pratihara ruler Mihir Bhoja adopted the title

  Yashpal was the last ruler of this dynasty.
  Sulthan Muhammed of Ghazni entred Kanauj dur-
ing the period of the Pratiharas.
  The Pala dynasty was founded by Gopala in 750 AD.
  Famous Odandapuri University was founded by

  The Vikramsila and Sompur Universities were

founded by the Pala king Dharmapala.
  The Pala power was destroyed by Vijayasena who

founded the Sena dynasty.
  The Sena dynasty was founded by Vijayasena

towards to end of 11th century. (1093)
  Senas had a capital in Vikrampura and another

in Vijayapura.
  About the middle of 13th century the senas were

overthrown by the Deva dynasty.
 Jayadeva, the author of Gitagovinda was patron-
ized by Sena ruler Lakshmana Sena.
  The four Agnikula Rajputs were the Pratiharas,

Chau-hans the Solankis and Paramaras.
  Chauhans had their capital at Ajmer and Delhi. 

 Ajayaraya established the city of Ajayameru or

  The most prominent ruler was Prithviraj III (1177-

1192). He defeated Muhammed of Ghore in the

First Battle of Tarain (1191). But Ghore defeated

and killed him in the Second Battle of Tarain (1192).
  Prithviraj Chauhan III was the last Hindu ruler

of Delhi.
  Prithvi Raj Rao is the historical Kavya written by

Chand Bardai.

The Chandelas of Bundelkhand

 The Chandela dynasty was founded by

Yasovarman with Mahobas as the Capital
  The Khajuraho temples are the best examples of

the Chandela art.

  Vijayalaya was the founder of the Chola empire.

He was a feudatory of the Pallavas of Kanchi.
  Raja Raja I (985 – 1014) adopted the titles of

Arumudivarman, Mammudichodadeva,

Jaykonda, Marthanda Chola, Mamudichola etc.
  He built the Brihadeshwara temple at Tanjavur.

which is called the RajaRajeswara temple.
  Rajendra I led an expedition to North India, de-
feated the Pala ruler Mahipala I and adtoped the

title, Gangaikondachola and established a new

Capital, Gangai Konda Cholapuram.
  Cholas maintained a well established local – self

government system. Ur, Sabha or Mahasabha –

and Nagaram were the assemblies for local ad-
  The Uttaramerur inscription of Dantivarman Pallava

gives details about the local self

Eminent Personalities of Ancient

  Alexander : he was the ruler of Macedonia in

Greece. He attacked India in 326 BC and captured

upto river Bias.
  Ajatasatru : Son of Bimbisara. He established the

city of Pataliputra.
  Arien : Greek historian who wrote about

Alexander’s Indian invasion.
  Ashwaghosh : Buddhist monk who initiated

Kaniskha to Buddhism wrote Buddha charita,

Sutralankar and Sandaranand.
  AmarSimha : Sanskrit scholar in the court of

Chandragupta who wrote Amarakosha.
  Aryabhatta : He analysed the reasons for Solar

and Lunar eclipses and declared that the Earth is

round. Wrote Aryabhattiyam.
  Bimbisar : Founded the Magadhan Empire or

Haryanka dynasty. He was the first influential king

of ancient India.
  Banabhatta : Court poet of Harshavardhana and

author of Harsha Charita and Kadambari.
  Charak : He was an Ayurvedic expert wrote

Charak-Samhita and established the Aitereya

branch of Ayurvedic medicines.
  Amoghavarsha : He was a famous Rashtrakuta

 Temples and Builders
 Kailas Temple at Ellora ……………………
Krishna I

Chunnakesava Temple, Belur ….

Rathas at Mahabilipuram …
Narashimhavarman I

Brihadeswara Temple,
Tanjavur …RajaRaja Chola

Shore Temple,
Mahabalipuram … Narasimha VarmanII
 Lingaraja Temple, Bhavaneswar ……………………

……………………………….. Eastern Gangarubs

Karjuraho Temples ……………………….Chandellas

Rajarajeshwara Temple, Tanjavur ………Raja raja I

Meenakshi Temple at Madhurai .. Nayaka Rulers

Shiva Temple at Tanjavur ……….. Raja Raja Chola
 Dhanananda : He was a powerful king of Magadha. Alexander did not go forward to in-
vade Magadha only after hearing his reputation.

 Darius I : The ruler of Iran (Persia) who invaded India in 6th century BC.

 Gautami Putra Shatakarni : He was the most famous Satavahana king in 2nd Century.

 Harisena : He was the writer of Pryaga Prashasti or Allahabad Pillar Inscription.

 Kharavel : Ruler of Kalinga in I century AD. The Famous Hathigumbha inscription belonged to


 Kanishka : (I century AD) : Most powerful Kushan king. Started Shaka Era. Organised fourth

Buddhist council at Kundalvan near Kashmir.

 Karikala : Chola ruler who founded the city of Puhar (Kaveri patanam) in I century BC.

 Kautilya : also known as Vishnugupta or Chanakya. He wrote Arthasasthra, which is com-
pared to ‘The prince’ of Machiavelli.

 Kalidas : Famous Sanskrit poet who wrote, Raghuvamsa, Kumara Sambhavam, Abhigyana

Shakuntalam, Vikramorvashiyam and Malavikagnimitram. He also wrote Meghadootam and Ritusamharam.

 Kamban : A Tamil poet of 11th century who wrote Ramayan in Tamil.

 Mihir Bhoja : Famous Prathihara ruler of 9th century.

 Kalhana – Famous Kashmiri poet and historian.He wrote Raja Tarangini.

 Marco Polo : Venitian Traveller to India in 13th century.

 Menander : He came to India as a foreign aggressor in II Century BC. MilindaPanho, a book writ-
ten by Nagasena, is about him.

 Nagarjuna : Famous Buddhist monk. He popounded the philosophy known as Madhyamika.

 Makkali Gosala : Philosopher of 6th Century BC. He was the founder of Ajivika sect

 Mihirkula : Huna conqueror defeated by Yashodharma.

 Skand Gupt : Last mighty Gupta ruler.

 Shushrut : He was a doctor of Ayurvedic medicine. He started the Dhanwantri branch and was an expert in Plastic Surgery.

 Pulikeshin II. Most powerful king of Chalukyas of Vatapi who defeated Harshavardhana in North

and Mahendravarman of South.

 Pushya Mitra sunga : He killed the last Mauryan ruler and laid the foundation of Sunga dynasty in

185 BC.

 Pliny : He was a Roman historian who wrote the Natural History. He wrote about the Mauryas of


 Panini : Sanskrit scholar specially of Grammar. He wrote Ashtadyayi.

 Varahamihira : He was famous astronomer who wrote Brihat Samhita.

 Sankaracharya : He was born in Kaladi in Kerala. He propagated Advaita Philosophy.

Selected Questions from

Ancient Indian History

 The source of Swastika symbol Indus Valley

 Who is considered as the father of Indian archaeoloy

Alexander Cunningham

 Meter scale has been discovered from ………Harappa

 Weapon never used by the Indus people Sword

 What was the major industry in Chanhudaro?

Bead making

 The word ‘Sindhan’ used by the Indus people denoted Cotton

 Evidence of fractional burial has been excavated from Harappa
 The word ‘godhume’ used in the vedic period denote Wheat

 ‘Yava’ denoted Barley

 Term used to denote rice in the vedic text Vrihi

 Vedic term sita denoted Ploughed field

 Which veda mentions about wheel Rigveda

 Vedi terms ‘Urvara’ or ‘kshetra’ denoted Cultivated field

 The famous frog hymn in Rig Veda throws light to Vedic education

 Who was considered as the god of the vedas? Varuna

 Rigvedic term ‘Duhitri’ denoted Milker of cows

 Method used to calculate the number of cows in the Vedic period Ashtakarni

 Part of which veda has prose part Yajur Veda

 Who spread Aryan religion in South India Agasthya

 Vedic term ‘Aghanya’ denotes Cows

 The term ‘Bharata’ and ‘Bharatavarsha’ were first used in Rig Veda

 Upanishad which mentions the four Ashramas of Vedic period Jabala Upanishad

 Largest number of hymns in Rigveda a are in praise of Indra

 First town in the vedic period to use burned bricks Kausambi

 First reference about lending money for interest can be found in Satpatha Brahmana

 Rigvedic paintings have been discovered from Bhagvanpura. It is in which state ‘ Hariyana

 Upanishad which mentions about police system Brihadaranyaka Upanishads

 God who was considered as God of Gods Varuna

 Community which was considered as untouchables by the Buddhists. Chandalas

 The language used by the Jains to spread their religion Prakrit

 Who is considered as the St.John of Buddhism Ananda

 Who is considered as Devil by the Buddhists Mara

 Three daughters of ‘Mara’ lust, emotion and desire

 The ruler who persecuted Buddhists Pushyamitrasunga

 Major philosophic school of BhagvatismVishishtadvaita

 Earliest reference about Srikrishna can be found in Chandoghya Upanishad

 Hindu God who found place in Greek literature Sri Krishna

 Jain Thirthankara, who was related to Sri Krishna Rishabhadeva (Ist Thirthankara)

 Tamil god of the Sangham age for War and Victory Kottavai
 Saint who founded the Saivism Lakulisa

 Tamil kingdom of the Sangham Age which sent an ambassador to the court of Roman Emperor Augusts Pandyas

 First Sangham was founded by Saint Agasthya

 Famous poetess of the Sangham period Avvaiyar

 Greeco-Roman traders who visited South India during the Sangham period were denoted with the term Yavanas

 Sangham work which describes about Buddhism Manimekhalai

 The word used by Ashoka to denote Buddha Bhagavati

 Ashokan inscriptions were desciphered by James prince in the year 1837

 Indo-Greek ruler who had his boundaries upto Pataliputra Menander

 Yuchi ruler who introduced gold coins for the first time Vima Kadphesus

 Edict which mentions about the relation between India and China Nagarjunakonda


Arab Conquest of Sindh

 During the Khaliphate of Omar, Arab forces made fertile attempts to get Bombay

 Arabs captured Sindh in 712 AD.

 The Arab conquest of Sindh was led by Muhammed Bin Kassim.

 Muhammed Bin Khasim was the nephew of AlHajaj, the governor of the Arab province of Basra.

 Dahir, a Brahmin was the ruler of Punjab at that time. He was killed by Kassim.

 The Arabs lost control over Sindh in 779 AD.

 Arab conquest of Sindh resulted in the spread of Islam to North India.

 But Islam was first introduced in India by Malik Ibn Dinar in Kerala in 644 AD.

Turkish Invasions

 Ghazni in Afghanistan was ruled by a Turkish family called Gamini of Ghaznavid dynasty.

 Muhammed Ghazni was the first Turkish conqueror of North India.

 Muhammad Ghazni’s father was Subu ktigin.

 He attacked India only for want of wealth.

 He attacked India seventeen times between 1000 and 1027 AD. He made all the raids in the guise of Jihad.

 First Invasion was in 1001 AD.

 He defeated Jaipal and Anandpal of Shahi dynasty in 1001 and 1009 respectively.

 The most important raid of Muhammed was the Somanath expedition. It was in 1025. He completely distroyed the temple. Somanath Temple was on the sea coast of Gujarat.

 Muhammed Ghazni died in 30th April 1030.

 Later his son Masud attacked India and caputred Kashmir.

 The famous Persian poet Firdausi who wrote ‘Shahnama’ (The Book of Kings) lived in his court.

 Alberuni, an Arab Historian, who wrote Tarikh-ul-Hind (Reality of Hindustan), accompanied Muhammed Ghazni to India.

 Al-Firdausi is known as ‘Indian Homer’, ‘Persian Homer’, or ‘The Immortal Homer of the East’.
 Muhammed of Ghore attacked India betwen 1175 and 1206 AD.

 Muhammed Ghori made his first expedition to India and captured multan in 1175 AD.

 In the First Battle Tarain in 1191 (near Taneswar) Muhammed Ghori was defeated by the Rajput

forces under Prithviraj Chauhan III.

 In the Second Battle of Tarain (1192 AD) Muhammed Ghori assisted by Qutub -ud-din Aibek a slave, defeated Prithviraj Chauhan III and killed him.

 In 1193 Muhamed Ghori attacked Jaichand, father in law of Prithviraj . III at Kanauj, Jaichand was defeated.

 Muhammed Ghori returned from India by intrusting his territories in India in the hands of Qutub-
Uddin Aibak.

 After the death of Ghori in 1206 Aibek founded the Slave Dynasty.

 Muhammed Ghoris Indian invasion resulted in the foundation of Islamic rule in India.

Delhi Sultanate

 The five dynasties which founded subsequently after the Turkish invasion were collectively known

as Delhi sulthanate. They are:

Slave Dynasty ………………… 1206 – 1290

Khilji Dynasty ……………….. 1290 – 1320

Tughlaq Dynasty …………….. 1320 – 1412

Sayyid Dynasty ………………. 1414 – 1451

Lodi Dynasty………………….. 1451 – 1526

Slave Dynasty (1206 – 1290)

 Slave Dynasty was also called Ilbari Dynasty,

Yamini Dynasty or Mamluk Dynasty.

 Qutub-ud-din Aibak was a slave of Muhammed

Ghori and he founded the Slave Dynasty in 1206


 Aibak was the first Muslim ruler of India.

 The capital of Qutub-ud-din Aibak was at Lahore

 He was known as ‘Lakh Baksh’ or ‘giver of lakhs’

or ‘giver of favours’ for his magnanimity.

 Hasan Nizami was a famous historian in the court

of the Aibak.

 Qutub-ud-din Aibak started the construction of

Qutub Minar in 1199 in Delhi in memory of the

Sufi saint Quaja Qutub – ud-din Bhaktiar Kaki.

Its construction was completed by Ithumish. It is

a five storied building.

 Qutub-ud-din Aibak died 1210 by falling from

horseback while playing Polo.

 After the death of Qutubuddin, Aram Shah as-
cended the throne but he was

deposed by Ilthumish and

crowned himself the Sulthan.

 During the period of Ilthumish

(1210-1236) Chengizkhan, the

Mongole conqueror attacked

India (1221). Chengizkhan

Important Court Scholars

Kalidasa ………. Chandragupta II (Vikramaditya)

Banabhatta ………………………. Harshavardhana

Alberuni ………………………. Muhammed Ghazni

Firdausi ……………………….. Muhammad Ghazni

Amir Khusru ……………………… Alauddin Khilji

Todarmal ……………………………………….. Akbar

Tansen ………………………………………….. Akbar

Birbal ……………………………………………. Akbar

Mansingh ……………………………………… Akbar

Abul Fazal ……………………………………… Akbar

Ashva Ghosha …………………………… Kanishka

Amara Simha ……………………. Chandragupta II

Chand Bardai …………………. Prithviraj Chauhan

Revikirti………………………………… Pulikeshin II

Dhanwantari …………………….. Chandragupta II

Harisen …………………………….. Samudra Gupta

Tenali Rama …………………… Krishnadeva Raya
 Ilthumish is considered as the real founder of

Delhi Sulthanate.

 Ilthumish is considered as the real founder of

Delhi Sulthanate

 Ilthumish was the first Sulthan of Delhi to get

recognition of the Khalif of Bagdad.

 Ilthumish was also the first Sulthan to make Delhi

his capital.

 He issued a purely Arabic coinage of Silver and

was the first to do so.

 Coins introdued by Ilthumish, ‘Silver Thanka’

and ‘Copper Jital’ were the two basic coins of

the Sulthanate period.

 He organised the ‘Chalisa’ or the famous Turk-
ish forty to help him in the administration.

 Iltumish completed the construction of Qutub


 The revenue system of the Sulthanate ‘Iqta sys-
tem’, was introduced by Ilthumish.

 Ilthumish was succeeded by his son Ruknuddin

Firoz Shah. But he was later executed and Razia

became the sulthan (daughter of Ilthumish)

 Sulthana Raziya, the only women ruler of, the

Sultanate came to power in 1236 and reigned till


 Sulthana Raizya rejected the Pardah, she adorned

the male dress and held open courts.

 In October 14, 1240 both Razia and Altunia who

earlier raised arms against Razia but later joined

with her were, beheaded at Kaithal.

 After Raizya Behran Shah (1240 – 42) Allaud-din-
Masudshah (1242 – 46) and Naziruddin

Muhammad (1246 – 1266) ruled and Balban, the

founder of the second Ilban dynasty, became the


 Ghiasuddin Balban ‘a slave water carreer, hunts-
man, noble, statesman became the Sulthan of Delhi

in 1266 and continued in power till 1686 AD.

 Balban is considered as the founder of Second

Ilbary Dynasty.

 Balban described himself as ‘shadow of God’ or

the ‘viceregent of God on Earth’ (Zil-i-illahi)

 Balban because of his autocratic rule is consid-
ered as a ‘typical oriental despot’.

 The Chalisa or forty established by Ilthumish was

abolished by Balban.

 His policies are considered to be ‘Draconian’.

 He started the Iranian system of Sajda and Piabos.

 He was a patron of men of letters and showed

special favour to the poet Amir Khusrau.

 After Balban’s death in 1286, Kayqubad (1287 -90)

became the Sulthan.

 Madhavacharya of the Dwaita Philosophy got help

from Balban.

 Balban’s Tomb is situated in Delhi. It was con-
structed by Balban himself.

 Kayqubad was the last Slave Sulthan. (Kayumars

who ruled for a term of three months was actually

the last Slave Sulthan. He was killed by Jalaluddin

Khilji) and founded the Khilji Dynasty.

Khilji Dynasty (1290 -1320)

 Khilji dynasty was founded by Malik Firoz in

1290 and assumed the title Jalaluddin Khilji (1290-


 In 1292 the Mongols under Abdulla accepted de-
feat from Jalaluddin Khilji.

 Alauddin Khilji, the nephew

of Jalaluddin Khilji, killed him

after his victory on Devagiri

in 1296.

 Alauddin Khilji’s early name

was Ali Gurushap.

 He became the Sulthan in

1296 AD and ruled till 1316

 Alauddin Khilji was the first Muslim ruler to at-
Alauddin Khilji


 In 1303 Alauddin Khilji attacked Chittor, the capi-
tal of Mewar, to marry Padmini the wife of Chittor

king Ratna Singh.

 But Padmini and other Rajput women committed

Juhar (Juhar is a mass suicide by Jumping into

fire, committed by Rajput women to escape from

being polluted by others)

 Padmavat is a historical kavya about Padmini epi-
sode written by Malik Muhammed Jayasi.

 Malik Muhammed Jayasi was the court poet of

Shersha Suri.
 Alauddin Khilji was the first Muslim ruler to at-tack South India.

 Malik Kafur was Alauddin Khilji’s Commander

who attacked South India.

 Alauddin Khilji was the most famous ruler of the

Khilji Dynasty.

 Alauddin was the Sulthan of Delhi who banned

the use of liquor.

 Alauddin had a dream of a World Conquest so he

assumed the title ‘Sikhandar-i-sani’ or Second


 Demitrius a Bactrian ruler is popularly known as

Second Alexander.

 Alauddin abolished the Zamindari System and

imposed tax on cattle.

 He was the first muslim ruler of Delhi to introduce

measurement of land for tax assessment.

 His market regulations were to get goods at con-
trolled price to the people of Delhi.

 Alauddin Khilji was the first Sulthan of Delhi who

separated religion from politics.

 He was also the first to proclaim ‘‘I am the


 Alauddin constructed Alai Darwaza the gate way

of Qutub Minar.

 He built the city of Siri, the second of the seven

cities of Delhi, near Qutub Minar.

 The first marriage between a muslim ruler and a

Hindu princess was between Alauddin and Ka-
mala Devi, the widow of the ruler of Gujarat.

 Alauddin Khilji was killed by his commander

Malik Kafur by poisoning.

 Amir Khusru was the court poet of Alauddin

 Amir Khusru is known as the ‘Parrot of India’

 He is considered as the father of Urdu language

and the inventor of Sitar.

 Laila Majnu and Tughlaq Nama are the famous

works of Amir Khusru.

 Alauddin khilji was the first Sulthan to maintain a

permanent standing army.

 Alauddin Khilji was responsible for the introduc-
tion of postal system in medieval India.

 Mubarak shah khilji was the last ruler of the

khilji Dynasty.

 Khilji dynasty came to an end when the Mubarak

shah Khilji was killed by Khusrau Khan.

 Some historians consider Khusrau Khan as the

last Khilji Sulthan.

Tughlaq Dynasty (1320 – 1412)

 Tughlaq Dynasty was founded by Ghiazuddin

Tughlaq. His real name was Ghazi Malik.

 Ghiasuddin Tughlaq founded the dynasty after

killing Khuzru Khan in 1320.


MAURYAN EMPIRE………….. 322 BC – 185 BC

Chandragupta Maurya ……….. BC 322 – 297 BC

Bindusara ………………………… 297 BC – 274 BC

Ashoka …………………………… 274 BC – 237 BC

KUSHANA EMPIRE ………….. 20 AD – 225 AD

Kanishka …………………………. 78 AD – 120 AD

Gupta Empire ……………………320 AD – 606 AD

Chandragupta I ………………..320 AD – 330 AD

Samudra Gupta …………………330 AD – 380 AD

Chandra Gupta II ………………380 AD – 413 AD


Harsha Vardhana ………………606 AD – 647 AD

SLAVE DYNASTY ……….. 1206 AD – 1290 AD

Qutubuddin Aibak ……………… 1206 – 1210 AD

Ilthumish ………………………….. 1210 – 1236 AD

Raziya Sulthana …………………. 1236 – 1240 AD

Balban ……………………………… 1266 – 1286 AD

KHILJI DYNASTY ……………. 1290 – 1320 AD

Alauddin Khilji ………………….. 1296 – 1316 AD

TUGHLAQ DYNASTY ………. 1320 – 1412 AD

Muhammed Bin Tughlaq……… 1325 – 1351 AD

LODHI DYNASTY ……………. 1451 – 1526 AD

Ibrahim Lodi ………………………. 1517 -1526 AD

MUGHAL EMPIRE …… 1526 – 1540, 1555-1857

Babar ………………………………. 1526 – 1530 AD

Humayun ……………..1530-1540, 1555-1556 AD

Akbar ………………………………. 1556 – 1605 AD

Jahangir …………………………… 1605 – 1627 AD

Shahjahan ………………………….. 1628-1658 AD

Aurangazeb………………………. 1658 – 1707 AD

Bahadurshah II ………………….. 1837 – 1857 AD

 Ghiazuddin died by the collapse of a pavilion.

 He built the Tughlaqabad Fort in Delhi the third

city of Delhi to the east of Qutub complex.

 Ghiassudhin Tughlaq was the first Sulthan to start

irrigation works.

 GhiassuddinTughlaq was succeeded by his son

Jauna Khan, popularly known as Muhammed Bin


 Muhammed Bin Tughlaq is considered as the

single most responsible person for the decline of

Delhi Sulthanate.

 Muhammed Bin Tughlaq was known as a mix-
ture of opposites, wisest fool, Pagal padushah,

unfortunate idealogue and the predecessor of

Akbar in intellectual and religious matters.

 Ibn Batuta called him ‘‘an illstared idealist’’.

 He shifted his capital from Delhi to Devagiri

(Daulatabad) in 1327.

 In 1330 he introduced token currency of bronze

and copper.

 Moroccan Traveller Ibn Batuta visited India dur-
ing his period.

 Edward Thanas described him as ‘prince of


 Muhammed Bin Tughlaq was succeeded by his

elderly cousin, Firoz Shah Tughlaq.

 Firoz Shah Tughlaq was the first Sulthan of Delhi

to impose Jaziya. It was a religious tax for the

freedom of worship. He imposed it only upon Brah-

 He built the city of Firozbad in Delhi. The Firoz

shah Kotla was also built by him. The gate way of

Firozshah Kottla is Khooni Darwaza, or blood

stained gate. It was constructed by Shersha Suri.

 He transplanted two Ashokan Pillars to Firozabad.

 He is the author of Fatuhat -i- Firozshahi

 After Firozshah Tughlaq Muhammed Shah

Tughlaq or Naziruddin Muhammed came to the


 It was during the period of his reign that

the Lame or Tamerlain a Turkish conqueror of

Tartar tribe from Samarkhand attacked India in


 Timur appointed Khizr Khan, the governor of

Multan his authority in India.

Sayyid Dynasty (1414 – 1451)

 Sayyid Dynasty was founded by Khizr Khan in


 Last Sayyid Sulthan was Alauddin Alamshah or

Shah Alam I. He was killed by Bahalol Lodhi in


Lodhi Dynasty (1451-1526)

 Lodhi dynasty was founded by Bahlol Lodhi in

1451. The dynasty lasted upto 1526.

 Lodhi dynasty was the first Afghan dynasty or

first Pathan dynasty in India.

 Sikhandar Lodhi, who ruled from 1489 to 1517

shifted the capital from Delhi to Agra.

 Sikhandar Lodhi is considered as the Maker of

Agra City.

 Last Lodhi Sulthan or last Delhi Sulthan was

Ibrahim Lodhi. Rana Sangram Singh of Mewar

defeated him. His brother Daulat Khan Lodhi in-
vited Babar to India to defeat Ibrahim Lodhi in


 Babar defeated Ibrahim Lodhi in the First Battle

of Panipat in 1526 April 21.

 The title Sulthan was started by the Turkish rul-
ers. Muhammed Ghazni was the first to assume

the title Sulthan.

 The official language of the Delhi Sulthanate was


Bahmani and Vijayanagara Kingdoms

 The decline of the Sulthanate of Delhi gave birth

to two mighty states in South India the Bahmani

Kingdom of Gulbaraga and the Vijayanagara Em-

 The Bahmanis were Muslim rulers, while the rul-
ers of the Vijayanagar were Hindus.

 The Bahmani kingdom was founded by Zafar

Khan (Hassan) who took the title of AlauddinBahman Shah. He selected Gulbaraga as its capi-
tal and renamed it Ahsanabad.

 There were total eighteen Sulthans and they ruled

from 1347 to 1527.

 Muhammed Gawan was the famous minister of

Bahmini kingdom.

 The last prince of the Bahmani Kingdom was


 By 1527, the Bahmani kingdom was split up into

five independent principalities.

 The Adil Shahis of Bijapur -founder – Yusuf

Adilshah (1489 – 90)

 The Nizam Shahis of Ahamadnagar – founder –

Malik Ahmad (1499)

 The Imadshahis of Berar – founder -Fateh Ulla

Imadshanti (1490)

 The Qutubshahi kingdom of Golconda – founder

– Qutabshah (1512)

 The Baridshahis of Bidar – founder – Amir Ali

Barid (1527).

Vijaya Nagara Empire

 The founders of Vijaya Nagar Empire were

Harihara and Bukka Rai, the revenue officers of

the Kakatiya ruler Pratap Rudra Deva II of


 They founded the dynasty in 1336 with the capi-
tal as Vijaya Nagara on the banks of Tungbhadra

river witht the help of Saint Vidyaranya.

 Vijayanagara kingdom lasted for 230 years and

produced four dynasties.

Sangama (1336 – 1485)

Saluva – (1485 – 1505)

Tuluva (1505 – 1565) and

Aravidu (1565 – 1672)

 Krishna Deva Raya (1509 –

1529) belonged to the

Tuluva dynasty. The Ital-
ian traveller Nicolocont

visited his court.

 Krishnadeva Rayar is

known as ‘Andhra Bhoja’

 He wrote Ushaparinayam and Amuktamalyada

 Allasani Peddanna, a Telugu poet was a courtier

of Krishna Deva Raya. He is considered as the

‘‘Andra Kavita Pitamaha’’ the Grand Father of

Telugu poetry.

 ‘Ashtadiggajas’ was the famous Scholastic As-
sembly in the court of Krishna Deva Raya.

 Vijayanagar Empire was visited by many foreign


 Nicolo Conti – Venitian traveller, visited during

the reign of Devaraya I.

 Abdur Razzak : Ambassador of Sulthan

ShahRukh to the court of Devaraya II.

 Damingos Paes : He visited Krishna Devaraya’s


 Ferona Nuniz : A Portuguese who visited during

Achyuta Raya’s reign.

 Durate Barbosa : A portuguese who visited

Krishnadeva Raya’s court.

 Athenasius Nikitin (1415) : He was a Russian,

who visited during Deva Raya I’s period He wrote,

‘Voyage to India’.

The Mughal Empire

 The Mughals were originally Turks.

 They belonged to the Chaghtai branch of the

Turkish race.

 Period of the Mughal empire is known as Second

Classical Age. First Classical Age is the period


 Mughal Empire is also known as Timurid Empire

because of its relation to Amir Timur.

 Mughal Emperors are 20 in number. They ruled

India from 1526 to 1857. Only six are considered

great They are:

 Zahiruddin Muhammed Babur (1526 – 1530)

 Naziruddin Mirza Muhammed Humayun (1530 –

40 & 1555 – 1556)

 Jalaluddin Muhammed Akbar – (1556 – 1605)

 Nuruddin Muhammed Jahangir (1605 – 1627)
 Shahabuddin Muhammed Shah Jahan (1628 –


 Muhiyuddin Muhammed Aurangazeb Alamgir

(1658 – 1707)


 Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire, was

the fifth descendant of Timur

on Father’s side and the four-
teenth descendant of

Chengizkhan on mothers side.

 Babur was born in Farghana in

Turkey on 14 Feb. 1483 as the

som of Umer Sheik Mirza ad

Qulik Nigarkhanum.

 Babur’s father Umershiek Mirza was the grand

son of Amir Timur and the ruler of Farghana.

 Babur became the ruler of Samarkhand at the Age

of 11.

 He captured Kabul in 1504.

 Then Babur attacked India 5 times for want of


 Babur’s first Attack of India was in 1519 Bhera

was the first place captured by Babur.

 In 1524 Daulatkhan, Ibrahim Lodhi’s brother in-
vited Babur to India.

 On 21 April 1526 Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi,

the last Lodhi Sulthan in the First Battle of


 On 16 March 1527 he defeated Rana Sangha of

Mewar, in the Battle of Khanwa.

 The Rajputs in 1528 under Medini Raj of Malwa

fought against Babur in the Battle of Chanderi,

but were defeated.

 In 1529 the Afghans under Muhammed Lodhi

fought against Babur in the Battle of Ghaghra

but were defeated.

 In 1530 December 26, Babur died and was cre-
mated at Kabul.

 Babur was the first to use Artillery in India.

 His memoirs or autobiography ‘Tuzuk-i-Baburi

or Baburnamah was written in Turkish language,

Babur’s mothertongue.

 Babur said ‘I dont like India and Indians’.

 Babur was the first Mughal ruler to keep in hand

the Kohinur Diamond.

 Babur was a contemporary of Krishnadeva Raya

of Vijaya Nagara Empire.


 Humayun was born in 1507 in Kabul as the son of

Babur and Mahim Sulthana.

 He became the Mughal Em-
peror on 29 December 1530 at

the age of 23.

 He divided the empire among

his brothers – Askari, Hindal

and Kamran.

 The word ‘Humayun’ means

‘fortunate’ But Human is con-
sidered as the most unfortunate Mughal ruler.

 Human was an accomplished mathematician and


 In 1539 by the Battle of Chausa, Humayun was

defeated for the first time by Shershah Suri.

 In the next year (1540) Shershah completely de-
feated Humayun in the battle of Kanauj and

founded the Sur dynasty.

 After the lapse of 15 years Humayun re-captured

the Empire by defeating the last Sur ruler

Sikhandar Shah Suri by the battle of Sirhindh in

1555, July.

 After the restoration Humayun ruled for only six


 The period from 1540 to 1555 is known as the

period of temporary eclipse of the Mughal.

 Humayun died by an accidental fall from the

straicase of his Library ‘Shermandal’ at the

Puranakwila in Delhi on 24 January 1556.

 The Purnakwila was constructed by Humayun but

its construction was completed by Shershah.

 Humayun’s biography Humayun Namah was writ-
ten by Humayun’s sister Gulbadan Begum. The

language used to write this biography was a mix-
ture of Turkish and Persian.

 In 1533 Humayun built the city of Dinpana (world

refuge) in Delhi.

 Humayun’s tomb is situated in Delhi (first build-
ing in India having double domes)

 Humayun tomb is known as predecessor of

Tajmahal, because Taj was modelled after this,

also known as a dormitory of the house of Timur.

Mirak Mirza Ghias is its architect.

Akbar the Great

 Father – Humayun

 Mother – Hamida Bhanu Begum

 Step mother – Magam Anaga

 Guardian – Bairam Khan

 First Guardian – Munim Khan

 Akbar was born at Amarkot in

Sindh in 23 Nov. 1542.

 He came to the throne on February 14, 1556 at the

age of 14 at Kalanur.

 Hemu the Hindu Prime Minister of Muhammed

Adilshah of Bihar occupied Agra and accepted

the title Maharaja Vikramaditya.

 Akbar killed Hemu in the Second Battle of Paniput

in 1556 November 2.

 Akbar became an independent ruler at the age of

18 in 1560, after dismissing Bairamkhan.

 Later he married Bairam Khans widow Salima


 In 1561 he defeated the musician Sulthan of

Malwa – Baz Bahadur.

 In 1562 Akbar married Joda Bhai, the daughter of

Raja Bharmal of Amber

 In 1564, he abolished the religious tax Jaziya.

Jaziya was impossed for the first time by Firozshah


 In 1572 he captured Gujarat and in memory of that

he built a new capital city Fathepur sikri (city of

Victory) near Agra.

 The early name of Fathepur Sikri was city of Sikri.

 Buland Darwaza is the gate way of Fathepur Sikri,

built by Akbar.

 In 1575 Akbar constructed a prayer house in

Fathepur Sikri known as Ibadatkhana.

 In 1579 he issued the Infallibility Decree by which

he made himself the supreme head in religious


 In 1580 the first Jesuit missionaries arrived at the

court of Akbar.

 In 1585 Ralph Fitch the first English man to reach

India, reached Akbar’s court.

 Ralph Fitch is known as pioneer English man or

torch bearer Englishman.

 In 1582 Akbar founded a new religion for univer-
sal peace and monotheism known as ‘Din Ilahi’

means Divine Faith.

 In 1583 he started a new Calendar called Ilahi


 In 1576 Akbar defeated Maharana Pratap of

Mewar in the battle of Haldighat. Haldighat is a

mountain pass in the Aravally hills in Rajasthan.

 The Portuguese introduced tobacco for the first

time in India in the court of Akbar in 1604.

 Akbar was the Mughal Emperor when the En-
glish East India Company was being founded in

1600 December 31.

 Akbar died in 1605.

 His tomb is situated at Sikhandra near Agra.

 Akbar was an illiterate person, but he was a pa-
tron of men of eminence. He maintained a Scho-
lastic Assembly in his court. They included the

following personalities.

 Abul Fazal : Akbar’s court historian who wrote

Akbar’s biographical works Ain-i-Akbari and

Akbar Namah..

 Abul Faizi : Persian poet and brother of Abul

Fazal. He translated Mahabharata into Persian in

name ‘Razam Namah’ and Bhaskaracharya’s

mathematical work Leelavati into Persian.

 Mian Tansen : His original name was Ram Thanu

Pande. He was the court Musician of Akbar. He

composed a Raga, Rajdarbari in honour of Akbar.

 Birbal : His real name was Mahesh Das. He is the

court jester of Akbar.
 Raja Todarmal : RajaTodarmal was Akbar’s fi-
nance or revenue minister. He formulated Akbar’s

revenue system Zabti and Dashala systems. Raja

Todermal also translated Bhagavatapurana into


 Maharaja Mansing : Akbar’s military commander.

 Badauni : a historian who translated Ramayana

into Persian – Tarjuma -1-Ramayan.

 Tulasidas : Hindi poet who

wrote Ramacharitamanas.

 Akbar’s military system was

known as Mansabdari system,

which included Ranks from 10

– 7000

 Akbar was also responsible

for the introduction Persian as

the official language of


 He divided the Mughal Empire into 12 Subahs

(provinces) for the administrative conveniences.

 Akbar was also the first ruler to organise Hajj.

Pilgrimage at the government expense. The Port

Cambay in Gujarat is known as the ‘Gate way to

Mecca from Mughal India’.

 Akbar was an accomplished Sitar player.

 Mughal – Rajput friendly relation began during

the period of Akbar.


 Early name of Jahangir was Salim. Akbar called

him Sheika Baba.

 Jahangir came to the throne in


 Jahangir was the son of Akbar

and Jodabai.

 He married Mehrunnisa, an

Afghan widow in 1611 Later he

gave her the titles, Noor Mahal

(light of the palace) Noor Jahan (light of the world)

and Padusha Begum.

 In 1606 Jahangir executed fifth Sikh Guru Guru

Arjun Dev, because he helped Jahangir’s son

Prince Khusru to rebel against him.

 In 1609, Jahangir received William Hawkins, an

envoy of King James I of England, who reached

India to obtain trade concession.

 In 1615 Sir Thomas Roe reached the court of

Jahangir as the first ambassador of James I of

England in the court of Jahangir. As a result of

his efforts first English factory was established

at Surat in Gujarat.

 Period of Jahangir is considered as the Golden

Age of Mughal Painting. Jahangir himself was a

painter. Ustad Mansur and Abul Hassan were fa-
mous painters in the court of Jahangir.

 Jahangir built Shalimar and Nishant Gardens in


 Jahangir suspended a chain of Justice known as

Zndiri Adal infront of his court.

 Anarkali was Jahangair’s lover. Mughal-i-Asam

directed by K. Asif is a famous film which tells

the love story of Jahangir and Anarkali.

 Jahangir wrote his autobiography Tuzukh -i-
Jahangiri in Persian language.

 Jahangir died in 1627 and was cremated at

Shahdhara in Lahore.

Shah Jahan

 Shah Jahan was born on 5th January 1592 at


 His mother was Jagat Gosain

and his childhood name was


 He married Arjumand Benu

Begum, daughter of Asaf Khan,

brother of Noor Jahan. She later

came to be known as Mumtaz

Mahal which means beloved of the Palace.

 Shahjahan destroyed the Portuguese settlements

at Hoogly.

 Shah Jahan’s period is considered as the Golden

Age of Mughal Architecture and Shah Jahan is

known as the Prince of Builders.

 In 1631 he started the construction of Tajmahal

in memory of his wife and completed in 1653. It is

situated on the banks of Yamuna river in Uttar

Pradesh. Utad Iza a Turkish/ Persian was its ar-
chitect. British administrator Furgurson called it

‘a love in marble’. Now Sulphur Dioxide, emitted

by oil refinaries in Madhura after mixing with mois-
ture in the atmosphere forms Sulphuric Acid and

damages the marble of Tajmahal.

 In 1638 Shah Jahan built his new capital Shah

Jahanabad in Delhi and shifted the capital from

Agra to there.

 In 1639 he started the construction of Red fort in

Delhi on the model of Agrafort built by Akbar. Its

construction was completed in 1648. The Diwan-
i-Am, Diwan-i-Khas and the Moti Masjid are situ-
ated inside the Red fort. The Mothi Masjid in

Agra was constructed by ShahJahan.

 The INA Trial in 1945 was conducted at the Red


 The Gateway of Redfort is the Lahore Gate. It is

here at the Lahore Gate that the Prime Minister of

India hoists the National Flag and addresses the

nation on the independence day.

 In 1656 ShahJahan constructed the Juma Masjid

in Delhi. It is the biggest masjid in India. First

masjid in India was constructed at Kodungallur

in Kerala (Cheraman Palli) in 644 AD by Malik Ibn


 Shah Jahan’s period is known as the Golden Age

of Mughal Empire.

 The Portuguese introduced European painting in

India during the reign of Shah Jahan

 In 1658 Shah Jahan was imprisoned by his son

Aurangazeb and he died in 1666, after eight years.

His daughter Jahan Ara was also kept in prison

along with him at the Agra fort.

 Shah Jahan’s son Dhara Shukoe was a famous

scholar. He translated Bhagavat Gita and Sixty

Upanishads into Persian. He also wrote a book

titled Mujm-ul-Behrain (Mingling of the Oceans)

He also translated Atharva Veda into Persian.

 ShahJahan was a famous Lyricist. He wrote Lyr-
ics in Hindi.

 The famous Peacock Throne was built by Shah

Jahan. It was abducted from here by Nadirsha in

1739 during his Indian invasion (Persian con-
queror). Now it is kept at the London Tower Mu-
seum, Britain.

 French travellers Bernier and Tavernier and Ital-
ian traveller Manucci visited India during

ShahJahan’s period.


 Aurangazeb imprisoned his father and made him-
self the Padushah in 1658. But his actual corona-
tion was conducted in 1659.

 Alamgir was the name

adopted by Aurangazeb when

he became the Padusha.

 Aurangazeb is known as

‘Zinda Pir’ or living saint be-
cause of his simple life.

 He banned music and dance.

 He ousted all the artists from

his court. At the same time he was an accom-
plished Veena player.

 Aurangazeb was the last great Mughal Emperor.

 In 1675 he executed 9th Sikh Guru Guru Tej

Behadur because of his reluctance to accept Is-

 Teg Behadur was executed at the Chandni Chauk.

 In 1679 Aurangzeb constructed the tomb of his

only wife Rubiad Daurani at Aurangabad in

Maharashtra. It is known as Bibi ka Makabara. It

is otherwise known as Mini Tajmahal as it was

the blind imitation of Tajmahal. In the same year

he reimpossed Jasya upon all the non Muslims,

which was earlier abolished by Akbar.

 Aurangazeb called Shivaji a ‘mountain rat’ and

gave him the title Raja because of his guerilla tac-

 In 1660 he entrusted Shaisthakhan to defeat


 Later in 1665 the treaty of Purandar was signed

between Maharaja Jaisingh of Amber and Shivaji

Jaisingh was deputed by Aurangazeb.

 The Mughal Rajput relation became worse dur-
ing the period of Aurangazeb.

 Aurangazeb was the only Mughal Emperor who

was not a drunkard.

 Aurangazeb is considered as religiously fanatic.

He was also a temple breaker. He persecuted the

Hindus and imposed prohibition against the free

exercise of Holi and Divali.

 Aurangazeb died in 1707 February 20,at

Ahmednagar. Aurangazeb’s tomb is situated at

Daulatabad in Maharashtra.

Later Mughals

 Bahadurshah I came to the throne after the death

of Aurangazeb. His real name was Muassam.

 In 1739 Nadirshah Quli the Persian conqueror

attacked India during the period of the Mughal

Emperor Muhammed Shah or Rustan Khan

(1719-1748) and took away ShahJahan’s famous

Peacock Throne and Kohinoor Diamond.

 Ahmedshah’s (1748 -1754) period saw the mighty

invasion of Ahmed Shah Abdali of Afghanistan.

 Akbar Shah II (1806 – 1837) conferred the title

‘‘Raja’’ upon Ram Mohan Roy.

 Bahadurshah II (837-1862) was

the last Mughal emperor. On

17th May 1857 Bahadurshah II

was declared the independent

Emperor of India by the Muti-
neers. He was surrendered to

LtW.S.R. Hodson at Humayun’s

Tomb in Delhi. In 1859 he was

deported to Rangoon in December where he ex-
pired on Nov. 7, 1862. The Tomb of Bahadurshah

II is in Pwin Manah, the capital of Myanmar.

 Bahadurshah II was also a famous Urdu Poet.

 Bahadurshah II was also known as Bahadurshah

Zafar Zafar means gifted poet.

Shershah Suri

 Shershah’s original name was Farid.

 He was born in Hissar Firosa.

 His father was Hassan Khan

 His family came to India from Afghanistan.

 He entered the service of Baharkhan Lohani of

Behar from whom received the title of Sherkhan,

for killing a lion single handed.

 Later he became a member of the Mughal court of


 In 1539 by the battle of Chausa, Sherkhan de-
feated Humayun for the first time and assumed

the name Shershah.

 Later in 1540 he completely defeated Humayun in

in the battle of Kanauj and founded the Sur dy-

 While directing the operations of his artillery at

Kalanjar against the ruler of Bundelkhand Raja

Kirat Singh, Shershah was seriously wounded by

a sudden fire from his own artillery and died on

May 22, 1545.

 Shershah constructed the Grand Trunk Road from

Sohargaon to Attock (Calcutta to Amritsar)

 He introduced the National Highway concept for

the first time in India.

 Now the Grand Trunk Road is known as Shershah

Suri Marg. Its part from Delhi to Amritsar is

known as National Highway -1.

 Grand Trunk Road is also known a ‘Long Walk’.

 He was the first ruler to introduce Silver Rupiya

(one rupiya was equal to 64 dams) and gold coin


 He built the Purana Qila in Delhi (its Construc-
tion was started by Humayun) and his own

Mousoleum (Tomb) at Sasaram in Bihar.

 He also constructed the Khooni Darwaza (blood

stained gate) the gate way of Firozshah Kotla in


 Hindi poet Malik Muhammed Jayasi completed

his Padmavat, during his reign.

 His Revenue system was excellent and hence

Akbar’s administrative reforms were modelled af-
ter him. He is regarded as the forerunner of Akbar.

 Shershah was succeeded by his son Islam Shah.
 The last Sur ruler was Sikkandar Shah Sur. Who

was defeated by Humayun in 1555 by the battle

of Sirhindh.

The Marathas

 The first great leader of the Marathas was

Chatrapathi Shivaji.

 The Marathas became prominent in the later half

of the 17th century.

 Shivaji belonged to the Bhonsle clan of the


 Shaji Bhonsle and Jiga Bai were the Parents of


 He was born in 1627 February

19 at the fort of Shivner near


 His father was a military com-
mander under the Nizam Shahi

rulers of Ahmedanagar and

later of Bijapur.

 Shivaji’s tutor was Dadaji Kondadev.

 Shivaji received the help of Malavi tribe to cap-
ture the territories of Bijapur Sulthan.

 Torna was the first place captured by Shivaji in


 Shivaji came to conflict with the Mughals for the

first time in 1657, during the period of Shah Jahan.

 In 1659 Bijapur Sulthan Ali Adilshah sent Afzal

Khan to kill Shivaji. But he killed Afsal Khan.

 In 1660 Aurangazeb deputed his viceroy of

Deccan, Shaisthakhan to kill Shivaji.

 1665, Shivaji signed the treaty of Purandar with

Raja Jai Singh of Ambher, who was deputed by


 In 1666 Shivaji visited Aurangazeb in his court at

Agra. But he and his son Sambaji were impris-
oned by Aurangazeb in the Jaipur Bhavan.

 On 16th June 1674 Shivaji crowned himself an

independent Hindu king became the Chatrapathi

and assumed the title ‘Haidavadhasmodharak’.

 Shivaji died in 1680 at the age of 53.

 Shahu became the Chatrapathi in 1708 and his

period witnessed the rise of Peshwaship.

 Balaji Vishwanath (1712 – 1720) Baji Rao (1720 –

40) Balaji BajiRao I (1740 – 61) and Madhav Rao I

(1761 – 1772) were the Peshwas who ruled


 Baji Rao popularised the idea of Hindu

Padpadshahi or Hindu Empire.

 Balaji Baji Rao’s period witnessed the Third Battle

of Panipat in 1761. In this battle Ahmed Shah

Abdali of Afghanistan defeated the Marathas.

 Madhava Rao was the last great Peshwa.

 Last Peshwa was Baji Rao II.

 Madhava Rao’s period witnessed the disintegra-
tion of the Maratha power and the formation of in-
dependent kingdoms – Holkarofindor, Bhonsle of

Nagpur, Sindhya of Gwalior and Gaekwad of Baroda.

 Shivaji’s Council of Ministers was known as

Ashtapradhan. They were Peshwa, Pandit Rao,

Sumant, Sachiva, Senapathi, Amatya, Mantri and


 Peshwa was the Maratha Chief Minister.

 Chaudh and Sardesh Mukhi were two special laxes

collected by the Marathas.

 The first Maratha war (1775 -82) Swai Madhav

Rao Vs Raghunath Rao with English support.

 Second Maratha war 1803 – 05.

 Third Maratha war 1816 – 19.

 The last great Soldier and statesman of Maratha

was Nana Phadavnis (1800)

 The Maratha script was called Modiscript.

 Peshwaship was abolished in 1818

 Baji Rao was the ablest of the Peshwas.

 Shivaji did not allow women in his military camp.

 The Marathas were equipped with an efficient

naval system under Shivaji.


 ‘Sikh’ is a sanskrit word which means ‘desciple’

 Sikh religion was founded by


 Guru Nanak was born was born

at Talwandi in Lahore, belonged

to the Khatri Caste (Mercantile


 Nanak called his creed as

Gurumat or Guru’s wisdom.

 GuruNanak was born in 1469 and died in 1538.

 He was the first Guru of the Sikhs.

 Nanak preached only in Punjabi.

 Nanak nominated Guru Angad as his successor.

 Guru Angad introduced Gurumukhi Script. He

also compiled Guru Nanak’s biography Janam


 Langar or free community dining was also intro-
duced by Guru Angad.

 Third Sikh Guru was Amar Das. He started the

Manji system ie, branches for the propagation of

Sikhs. He made Guruship hereditory.

 Guru Ramdas was the fourth Sikh Guru. He

founded the city of Amritsar. The place for the

city was donated by Akbar.

 Under the fifth Sikh Guru, Guru Arjun Dev,

Sikhism became an organised religion. He com-
piled the ‘Adi Grandh’ the sacred book of the

Sikhs. He built a temple at Amritsar , (later the

Golden Temple) Har Mandir Sahib. He helped

Jahangir’s son Prince Khusru to rebel against the

Emperor So he was executed by Jahangir at Lahore

in 1606 AD.

 The sixth Guru Hargovind, created a Sikh army

and turned against Shah Jahan. He founded a

palace opposite to Harmandir Sahib known as

‘Akaltakt’. He also adopted the title Sacha

Padusha, which means true ruler. (the title was

not adopted by Teg Bahadur)

 Seventh Guru was Har Rai. He was succeeded

by Guru Harkishan. Har Kishan became the Guru

at the age of five, hence he is the youngest Sikh


 The 10th and the last Guru, Govind Singh formed

the Khalsa or the Sikh brotherhood.

 He introduced ‘Panchkakar’ of Sikhism -ie Kesh

(long hair) Kanga (Comb) Kripan (Sword), Kachha

(Underwear) and Kara (Iron bangk)

 He introduced baptism and wanted every Sikh to

bear community surname ‘Singh’ or lion.

 His aim was the establishment of a Sikh State af-
ter overthrowing the Mughals. In 1708 he was

killed by an Afghan.

 ‘Vichithra Natak’ is the autobiography of Guru

Govind Singh.

 Kartarpur Dabir is the root form of Guru Grandh


 Govind Singh proclaimed the Grandh Sahib as

the eternal Guru.

Renjith Singh (1780 – 1836)

 Renjith Singh became the ruler of Punjab in 1799.

 He assumed the title Maharaja

in 1801.

 The 1809 the British and Renjith

Singh made the Treaty of

Amritsar during the period of

Lord Minto

 In 1809 Shah Shuja the grand-
son of Ahmedshah Abdali pre-
sented the Kohinoor diamond to Ranjith Singh.

 Later Punjab was annexed to the British territo-
ries by Lord Dalhousie in 1849. Sir John Lawrence

became the first Chief Commissioner of Punjab.

 The Sikhs fought two wars against the English

First Anglo-Sikh War (1845- 1846) and the Sec-
ond Anglo-Sikh war (1848 – 1849)

The Bhakti Movement

 Love and devotion to one personal God is the

basic concept of Bhakti.

 The Alvars or Vaishanava saints and Nayanars

or Saivite, saints became the promoters of Bhakti

movement in South India.

 Ramanuja, a Vaishana saint of 12th century AD,

was born at Sriperumbathur and founded philoso-
phy of Vishistadvaita or qualified monism.

Guru Nanak ………………………… 1469-1538

Guru Angad ……………………… 1538 – 1552

Guru Amardas …………………… 1552 – 1574

Guru Ramdas …………………….. 1574 – 1581

Guru Arjundev ………………….. 1581 – 1606

Guru Hargovind …………………. 1606 – 1645

Guru Har Rai ……………………… 1645 – 1661

Guru Har Kishan ………………….. 1661-1664

Guru Teg Bahadur ………………… 1664-1675

Guru Govind Singh …………….. 1675 – 1708
 The leader of Bhakti movement or Hindu revival-
ism was Sankaracharya. His philosophy was

Advaita or pure monism. He wrote Commentary

on Brahmasutra and Upanishad. He founded four

matts- Sringeri, Dwaraka, Puri and Badrinath.

 Vallabhacharya promoted the philosophy of

Pushtimarga. He was the founder of Sudhadvaita.

 The North India the Bakti movement was pro-
moted by two sects of thought – the Saguna and

Nirguna schools.

 Ramanand, born at Prayag preached

Vaishnavaism. He was a followers of Ramanuja.

 Kabir (1398 -1458) a nirguna was born near

Benaras. His followers started the ‘Kabirpanthis’.

 Tulasi Dasa (1532 – 1623) a worshipper of Rama

compossed Ramcharithamanasa in Hindi. His

other works are Kavitavali and Gitavali.

 Mirabai (1498 – 1509) a Rajaput princess hailed

from the Sisodiya dynasty of Chittoor was a devo-
tee of Lord Krishna. Her lyrics were written in

Brijbhasha and in Rajasthani.

 Jnanadeva, Namadeva, Eknatha Tukaram and

Samarth Ram Das were the leading Maratha

saints of Bhakti movement.

 Jnanadeva founded the Maharashtra Dharma. His

famous work ‘Jnaneswari’ is a commendarel on


 Ekanath promoted the custom of singing

Kirthana and he composed ‘abhangas’ or typical


 Tukaram a contemporary of Shivaji was the pro-
moter of Maratha nationalism.

 Samarth Ramdas, the spiritual guide of Shivaji,

wrote ‘Dasabhodha’.


 Mythical movement of the Muslims was known

as Suficism.

 Sufi movement first came to India in the wake of

Muhammed Ghazni’s invasion in the 11th cen-

 Sufi orders are called Silsilahs.

 Chishti Silsilah was founded by Khawaja

Moinuddin Chishti of Ajmir.

 Sufism declined in the 17th Century.

Famous Personalities in Medieval


 Al Masudi – An Arabian traveller who came to

India in 10th century AD.

 Al Beruni – He came to India with Muhammed

Ghazni, his book, Tahrik-ul-Hindh.

 Abbas Khan Shervani : He was a historian of

Shershahs time. He wrote Tarikh-1-Shershahi.

 Abul Fazal : He was a a great scholar poet Histo-
rian in the court of Akbar. He wrote Akbarnamah

and Ain-i- Akbari.

 Bhaktiyar Khilji : Commander of Muhammed

Ghori who conquered Bengal and crushed the

Sena dynasty.

 Bhar Mal : He was the Rajput ruler of Amber. His

daughter Jodabai was married to Akbar. Akbars

commanders Bhangavandas and Mansingh were

his son and grandson respectively.

 Chathaniya : He popularised ‘Bhakti’ in Bengal.

He was worshipper of Krishna.

 Chand Bibi : She was the daughter of Nizam Shai

ruler of Ahmed Nagar and was married to the Adil

Shahi ruler of Bijapur. As a widow she fought

with Mughals to save her dynasty.

 Bairam Khan : He helped Akbar to defeat Hemu.

 Firadusi : famous poet in the court of Muhammed

Ghazni He wrote Shah Namah (The book of kings).

He is known as Indian Homer or Persian Homer.

 Ibn Batuta : He was an African (Morocco) who

visited the court of Muhammed bin Tughlaq and

wrote the book ‘Rihala’.

 Hasan Gangu – founder of Bahmani dynasty un-
der the name Alauddin Bahamanshah.

 Jai Chandra – He was the ruler of Kanauj, be-
longed to the Gahawala dynasty. He was defeated

in 1194 by Muhammed Ghori in the battle of

 Khawaja Moinuddin Chisti : He was a sufi saint

of 12th century who started the Chishtia sect at


 Islam Shah : Second Sur ruler, son of Shersha He

codified the law and introduced an impartial sys-
tem of Justice.

 Lalitaditya of Karkota dynasty : He ruled over

Kashmir from 724 to 760. The famous Martand

Mandir temple was built by him.

 Malik Kafur : He was an army commander of

Alauddin Khilji – who conquered south India for

him. He was converted to Islam from Hinduism.

 Muhamed Gawan : He was a minister to the

Bahmani rulers.

 Malik Amber : He was a Syrian slave who could

became the Prime Minister of Ahmed Nagar. He

administered the State very well fought against

the Mughals and Marathas.

 Mirza Ghias Beg : He was the father of Nur Jahan

and received the title Etmatuddaula. His tomb is

in Agra.

 Murshid Quli Khan : He was an independent

ruler of Bengal, who founded the city of


 Rana Kumbha : He was a Rajput ruler of 15th

century He built a kirti Stambh at Chittar.


Advent of the Europeans

 A new Sea route to India via Cape of Good Hope

(Southern tip of South Africa) by Vasco da Gama

in 1498 AD marked the beginning of European

period in Indian History.

 He first arrived at Kapad near Kozhikode in Kerala.

 Saint Gabriel was the name of the ship in which

Vasco-da-Gama landed at Kappad, the port of

Zamorine of Calicut.

 The most famous Portuguese men from the point

of view of India Vasco da Gama, Almeida


 Vasco-da-Gama arrived for the second time in 1502

and for the third chance in 1524. He died at Fort

Cochin and was cremated at the St. Frnacis

Church there. Later his remains were brought back

to Portugal.

 Don Francisco de’Almedia was the first Portu-
guese governor in the East. His policy was called

‘‘the bluewater policy’’ which aimed at the

establishement of strong navy.

 In 1507 the Portuguese arrived at Madras. The

city finally got its name from their leader Madra.

 The greatest Portuguese governor to the East was

Albuquerque. He was the real founder of the Por-
tuguese authority in India.

 Albuquerque tried to abolish Sati.

 His policy mixed colony system was to encour-
age intermarriage between the Portuguese and


 They Portuguese religious policy was

Lantinisation of Kerala.

 The conflict for the establishment of Latin rite

and syrian rite led to the Coonan Cross Oath in-
cident in 1653.

 The Portuguese introduced agricultural products

such a cashew, coconut, custardapple, pineapple

etc in India.

 They introduced Tobacco in the court of Akbar

in 1604.

 Portuguese authority in Indian seas remained upto


 The Portuguese started the first press in India at

Goa in 1556.

 The first Portuguese fort in India was constructed

at Cochin.

 Portuguese captured Goa from the Bijapur Sulthan

in 1510.

The Dutch

 In 20 March 1602 the United East India Company

of the Netherlands was formed. The Name of the

Dutch Company was Vereenidge Oostindische

Companie (VOC)

 The Dutch set up their first factory at

Masulipattanam in 1605.
 In 1663 the Dutch captured Cochin.

 In 1741 Marthandavarma, the Travancore ruler

defeated the Dutch in the Battle of Kolachal.

 The final Collapse of the Dutch came with their

defeat by the English in the Battle of Bedara in


The English and the French

 The English East India Company was formed by

a group of Merchants known as ‘The Merchant

Adventurers’ in 1599.

 Early Name of the company was John Company.

 English East India Company was formally estab-
lished on 31st December 1600 by a Charter issued

by Queen Elizabeth of the Tudor dynasty.

 Hector, the first ship of the English East India

company reached Surat on 24 August 1606.

 In 1612 the Company became a joint stock com-

 Sir Thomas Roe, first ambassador of James I of

England landed at Surat and met Jahangir in 1613

and the first English factor, was established at


 The company acquired Bombay from Charles II

on lease which he got as dowry from Portugal.

 The designation of ‘Chief Justice’ was introduced

in India by the English in 1678.

 Madras became the first presidency chartered as

municipal corporation with Mayor’s court 1687.

 Job Charnock founded the city of Calcutta.

 Colbert the minister of Louis XIV created the

compangnile des Indes Orientales in 1664.

 Francis Carton set up the first French factory at

Surat in 1668.

 The First French Governor of Ponicherry was

Francois Martin.

 The arrival of Dupleix as French Governor in In-
dia in 1742 saw the beginning of Anglo- French


 The first Carnatic war between the French and

the English for supremacy in South India occured

in 1742. It ended in 1748 by the treaty of Aix-la-

 The second Carnatic war was from 1748 to 1754.

 Robert Clive was the Governor of the English

during the Carnatic wars.

 The Gregorian Calendar came to be used through-
out the British dominion in 1752.

 The Second Carnatic war ended with the treaty of

Pondicherry in 1754.

 The Third Carnatic war was from 1758 to 1763.

 At the Battle of Wandiwash Eyre Coot defeated

French general Lally in 1760.

 With the treaty of Paris in 1763 peace was settled

between the French and English.

 The battle of Plassey was fought in the year 1757

June 13.

 In 1756 Siraj-ud-daula, the Nawab of Bengal, at-
tacked Calcutta and captured it. 146 British pris-
oners including their com-
mander John Zepheria Holwell

and four women were locked

in a small room. 123 of them

died inside due to suffication.

This incident is known a

Black-hole tragedy.

 Battle of Plassey was fought

between Robert Clive and

Siraj-ud-daula, the Nawab of Bengal.

 Siraj-ud-daula was defeated in the battle.

 Mir Zafar was made the Nawab of Bengal after

the battle of Plassey.

 After the battle of Plassey Robert Clive became

the first Governor of Bengal.

 The Construction of fort William of Calcutta was

started by Lord Clive.

 In 1764 the European Bengal Regiment mutinied

which was followed by the First Indian Sepoy

Mutiny against the British.

 The combined forces of Mirkassim, Emperor of

Delhi and Nawab Shuja-ud-Daula of Oudh were

defeated in the Battle of Buxar on October 23


 Robert Clive introduced official postal system in

India in 1766.
 Robert Clive introduced ‘Dual government’ in


Conquest of Mysore

 Haider Ali was the son of Fatheh Muhammed.He

was born in 1722.

 In 1766 he became the ruler of Mysore after the

death of Mysore Raja Krishna Wodeyar.

 First Mysore war between Haider Ali and the En-
glish started in 1767 and ended in 1769.

 First Anglo-Mysore war ended with the defeat of

English and the treaty of Madras.

 Second Mysore war was from 1780 to 1784.

 Haider Ali died in 1782 and Tipu Sulthan became

the Mysore ruler.

 The second Mysore war ended by the treaty of

Mangalore in 1784.

 Second Mysore war was fought during the pe-
riod of Warren Hastings.

 Third Mysore war started in 1790 and ended in


 The third war ended by the treaty of

Seringapatnam on March 19th1792.

 Fourth Anglo Mysore war was in 1799.

 Fourth Mysore war was fought during the period

of Governor general wellesley.

 In this battle Tipu was killed in 1799 at

Srerangapatanam by Col. Arthur Wellesley.

 Tipu’s Capital was Srerangapatanam.

 Tipu is known as Mysore Tiger.

 Fathul Mujahiddin is the book written by Tippu

which describes about Rockets.

Maratha Wars

 First Anglo Maratha war (1775-82) It ended by

the treaty of Salbai.

 Second Anglo-Maratha War was from 1803 to


 The treaty of Bassein was signed between the

last Peshwa Baji RaoII and the English in 1802.

 The second Maratha War was ended by the treaty

of Rajghat, 1806.

 The third Anglo Maratha war was from 1817-

1818. Thus by the end of third Maratha war the

Maratha power disappeared and the English cre-
ated the State of Sathara.

Subsidiary Alliance system and other


 Subsidiary Alliance System was used by

Wellesley to bring Indian States within the orbit

of British political power.

 First Indian ruler to join the Subsidiary Alliance

System was the Nizam of Hyderabad.

 Lord Wellesley is consdiered as the ‘Akbar of

English East India Company’ by Marshman.

 Permanent Revenue Settlement was introduced

in Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and districts of Benaras

and northern districts of Madras by Lord

Cornwallis in 1793. It was planned by Johnshore.

 Ryotwari System was introduced in Bombay,

Madras and Assam. This system was similar to

Akbar’s revenue policy Zabti system.

 Mahalwari System was introduced in Awad re-
gion, Punjab, NWFP and parts of Central India.

Executors of British Policies

 Warren Hastings : (1772-85) He introduced quin-
quennial settlement of land revenue in 1772.

 He codified the Hindu and Muslim laws.

 He founded the Asiatic Society of Bengal with

the help of William Jones in 1784.

 The trial of Maharaja Nandakumar (1775) and his

Judicial Murder was during the period of Warren


 He abolished the Dual Government in Bengal in


 After his return to England he was impeached

there in 1785.

 By the Regulating Act 1775 of appointed him

the first Governor General.

 First Anglo – Maratha war took place during his

 In 1780 James Augustus Hickey started a weekly

paper called Bengal Gazette or Calcutta General

Advertiser during the period of Warren Hastings.

 Warren Hastings established a Muhammedan

Madrasa in Calcutta.

Lord Cornwallis (1786 – 93)

 He introduced Permanent settlement in 1793.

 The Police system was introduced in India.

 Cornwallis Code was introduced. It was based

on the separation of powers.

Lord Wellesley (1793 – 1798)

 Described himself as Bengali Tiger.

 He created the Madras presidency.

 Introduced the system of Subsidiary Alliance.

 The first state to sign the Subsidiary Alliance sys-
tem was Hyderabad in 1798. Then Mysore,

Tanjore, Awadh, Peshwar, Bhonsle, Sindhia, Jodh-
pur, Jaipur, Mecheri, Bundi, Bharatpur and Berar

signed the subsidiary treaty.

 Lord Wellesley fought the second Maratha war.

 Raja Ram Mohan Roy wrote the Tuhfat-ul-
Muwahiddin (gift to the Monotheists) during his


Lord Minto (1807-1813)

 Signed the treaty of Amritsar in 1809 between

Ranjith Singh of Punjab and the English.

Lord Hastings (1813-23)

 He was made Marques of Hastings due to his

success in the Gorkhar war or the Anglo Nepalis


 He abolished the Peshwaship and annexed his

territories to the Bombay presidency after the third

Anglo-Maratha war (1818)

 Introduced the Ryotwari System in Madras presi-
dency by Governor Thomas Munroe in 1820 un-
der the governor generalship of Hastings.

 Mahalwari System of land revenue was intro-
duced in North West Province by James Thomson.

Lord William Bentinck (1828- 35)

 First Governor General of India by the govern-
ment of India Act of 1833.

 Known as benevolent Governor General.

 Banned the practice of Sati in 1829. Suppressed

Tughi in 1830.

 Banned female infanticide.

 Created the province of Agra in 1834.

 Made English to be the court language in higher

court but Persian continued in Lower courts.

 Appointed Macaulay as president of the commit-
tee of public instruction, Mecaulays Minutes was

submitted in 1835.

Sir Charles Metcalfe (1835 – 36)

 Abolished restriction on press

 He is called the ‘‘Liberator of Press’’

 First Afghan war was started during the Gover-
nor Generalship of Lord Auckland.

 Slavery was abolished by Governor general Lord


Lord Dalhousie (1849 – 56)

 Introduced the policy of ‘Doctrine of Lapse’

 Indian states annexed through the Doctrine of

Lapse were Satara (1848), Jaitpur and Sambalpur

(1849) Baghatpur (1850), Udaipur (1852) Jhansi

(1853) and Nagpur (1854).

 Introduced the Woods Despatch known as the

Magnacarta of English Education in India pre-
pared by Charles Wood in 1854.

 Boosted up the development of Railways and laid

the first Railway line in 1853 from Bombay to

Thane and Second from Calcutta to Raniganj.

 Gave a great impetus to Post and Telegraph. Tele-
graphic lines were laid – first line from Calcutta to


 Shimla was made summer Capital and Army Head

 Hindu Marriage Act was passed in 1856.

 In 1853 started recruitment of the Covenanted Civil

Service by competitive examination.

 A Post Office Act was passed in 1854. Postage

stamps were issued for the first time.

 In 1855 the Santhal Uprising took place

 Abolished the title of the Nawab of Carnatic.

Socio – Religious Reform Movements

Rammohan Roy (1772 – 1883) and Brahmo Samaj

 Raja Ram Mohan Roy is

known as the father of Mod-
ern India, ‘Herald of New

Age’, ‘Bridge between Past

and Future. ‘First Modern

Man in India’ Father of In-
dian Renaissance, Pathfinder

of his Century etc.

 Believed in monotheism and opposed idol wor-

 Established the ‘Atmiya Sabha’ in Calcutta in 1815

inorder to propagate monotheism and to fight

against the evil customs and practices in Hindu-

 He got legitimisation to his views from


 In 1821 he started a paper called Samvat Kaumudi.

 In 1822 he started Mirat-ul-Akbar, which was the

first journal in Persian.

 In the same year Rammohan and Dwarakanath

Tagore jointly started a newspaper called


 In 1825 he started the Vedanta College at Calcutta.

 In 1828, August he founded the BrahmaSabha

Later in 1845 the name Brahmasamaj was given

to it by Devendranath Tagore.

 Against the Brahmasabha orthodox Hindus lead

by Raja Radhakant Deb started Dharmasabha.

 In 1829 December 4 Sati was abolished by gover-
nor general William Bentinck.

 In 1831 he went to England to argue the case of

Akbar II before the Board of Control.

 The Mughal Emperor Akbarshah II gave Ram

Mohan the title ‘Raja’.

 After the death of Raja Ram Mohan Roy

Brahmasamaj was divided into several sects.

 Adi Brahmasamaj lead by Devendra Nath Tagore

and Bharatiya Brahmasamaj led by Keshav

Chandra Sen were started in 1866.

 Sadharana Brahma Samaj was started by

Anandmohan Bose in 1878.

 Devendra Nath Tagore was the founder of

Tatvabodhinisabha in Calcutta in 1839.

 Keshav Chandrasen started a paper called Indian

Mirror in 1861.

 Brahmasamaj reached outside Bengal under

Keshav Chandra Sen.

 Keshav Chandra Sen was the first Indian who

attempted to reform the society on an all India


 Surendra Nath Banerjee was the first Indian to

took up his political activity on an all India basis.

 ‘Precepts to Jesus’ is a book written by Rajaram

Mohan Roy.

 Thuhafath ul – muvahiddin or Gift to Monothe-
ists is also a work of Raja Ram Mohan Roy.

Prarthana Samaj

 Founded in 1867 in Bombay by Dr. Atmaram

Pandurang (not by MG Ranade) as an offshoot

of the Brahmasamaj.

 It was later joined by M.G. Ranade and R.G.


Arya samaj

 It was founded by Swami

Dayanand Saraswathi in


 He considered Vedas as

eternal and infalliable and

said ‘Go back to Vedas’

 Dayanand Saraswati (1824

– 1883) was a Sanyasi from


Swami Dayanand

Saraswathi i
 He was the first to teach an aggressive, reformed

and militant Hinduism.

 Dayanand, was known in his early life as Mul


 He founded the Arya Samaj at Bombay in 1575.

 He is known as Luther of Hinduism.

 He was the first to use the terms – Swarajya

Swabhasha and Swadharma.

 He was the first to consider Hindi as a National


 He started the Suddhi Movement to re-convert to

Hinduism those who were converted to other re-

 His book Satyartha Prakash is a commentary on


 He started Dayanand Anglo Vedic College in 1866.

 Aryaprakash was the news paper started by

Dayanand Saraswati.

Ramakrishna Mission

 Shri Ramakrishna Paramhamsa (1834 – 1886)

was born in Kumarpukur village in the Hoogly

village of Bengal.

 His early name was Shuddirama Gadhadhar


 He was a priest in the Dakshineswar Kali temple.

So he is called the Saint of Dakshineswar.

 The most famous disciple of

Ramakrishna was

Vivekananda (1861 – 1903).

 Vivekananda was born in a

Kayastha family of Calcutta.

 He attended the Parliament

of Reigions at Chicago in

1893, September 11.

 He was invited to the Congress of the History of

Religions at Paris in 1900.

 He founded the Ramakrishana Mission on Ist May


 1899 the Matha or the centre of the mission was

shifted to Belur.

 He started two papers – the monthly Prabudha

Barat in English and Udbodhana a Bengali fort-

 He is called the‘patriot saint of India’.

 He was also described as a ‘‘Cyclonic Hindu’’.

 In 1898 Sister Nivedita, (Margaret Elizebth Noble)

an Irish lady was initiated to brahmacharya by


Theosophical Society

 The Theosophical Society was founded by Ma-
dame Blavatsky and Col. H.S.Olcott in Newyork

in 1875.

 In 1882 it shifted its head quarters to Adayar near


 Its philosophy was inspired by the Hindu


 Dr.Annie Basant came to India in 1893, was its

notable President.

 In 1898 she started the Central Hindu School at

Benaras, it later became Benaras Hindu Univer-
sity under Madan Mohan Malavya (1916).

 She was the first woman to become the president

of INC in 1917.

 She started the Home Rule League with the Co-
operation of Bal Gangadhar Tilak in 1916 with

Dadabhai Naoroji as its President.

Young Bengal Movement

 Started by Henry Vivian Derozio, teacher in the

Calcutta Hindu College.

 His followers were known as the Derozians They

attacked the old traditions and decadant customs.

 In 1828 he started the Academic Association.

Gopal Ganesh Agarkar

 Reformer from Maharashtra he advocated the

power of human reason.

 He founded the Deccan Education Society at

Poona in 1884 with Tilak, V.K. Chiplunkar and

N M Joshi.
Jyotiba Phule

 Belonging to the low caste of Mali from

Maharashtra, struggled against upper caste domi-
nation and Brahamincal supremacy through his

Sathyashodhak Samaj founded in 1873.

 He wrote Ghulam-giri in 1872 exposing the con-
ditions of the backward castes.

 He pioneered the Widow Remarriage Movement

in Maharashtra and worked for the education of


Deva Samaj

 It was started in 1887 by Shiv Narayan Agnihotri

at Lahore.

 The religious text of this Samaj was Deva Shastra

and the teaching Devadharma.

NM Joshi

 Initially a member of Ghoklale’s Servants of India


 He founded the Social Service League at Bombay

in 1911.

 He also founded the All India Trade Union Con-
gress in 1920 at Bombay.

 He left AITUC in 1929 and started the Indian

Trades Union Federation.

HN Kunzru

 He founded the Seva Samiti at Allahabad in 1914

with the objective of organising social service

during the natural calamities and promoting edu-
cation sanitation, physical culture etc.

Shri Ram Bajpal

 Founded the Seva Samiti Boys Scouts Associa-
tion in 1914 at Bombay on the lines of world wide

Baden Powell organisation, which at that time

banned Indians from Joining it.

Veerasalingam Pantulu

 Most prominent social reformer of South India in

the second half of the 19th Century.

 He founded the Rajmundri Social Reform Asso-
ciation in 1878 with the principal objective of pro-
moting widow remarriage.

Muslim Reform Movements

Aligarh Movement

 This movement was started by Sir Syed Ahmad

Khan (1817 – 98)

 Sir Syed’s journal Tahzib-ul-Akhlaq advocated a

rational approach towards religion.

 He founded the Muhammadan Literarary Soci-
ety at Calcutta in 1863.

 In 1875 he founded the Aligarh Muhammadan

Anglo-Oriental College, (later Aligarh Muslim


 Altaf Hussain Hali, Dr. Nazir Ahmad, Nawab

Mutin Ul Mulk, Chirag Ali etc were the prominent

leader of Aligarh Movement.

 In 1866 Syed Ahmed Khan founded the Muslim

Educational Conference.

Ahmadia Movement

 Founded by Mirza Ahmad at Quadiani in Punjab.

Sikh Reform Movements

 In 1873 the Singh Sabha Movement was founded

at Amritsar.

 The Akali Movement was also started for Sikh


 Kuka Movement was started with the aim of Sikh

reform and restoration of Sikh sovereignty in

Punjab by driving the British away.

 Kuka movement was founded by Bagat

Jawaharmal, popularly known as Sian Sahib in

the 19th century.

 Kukas recognised Guru Govind Singh as the only

true Guru of the Sikhs.

Some other Reformers

 Prof. D.K. Karve who took the cause of widow

remarriage started the Indian Women University

at Bombay in 1916.
 B.M. Malabari started a Crusade against child

marriage and his efforts were crowned by the en-
actment of the Age consent Act. 1891.

 Ahrar Movement was founded in 1910 under the

leadership of Maulana Mohamed Ali.

The Revolt of 1857

 The Great Mutiny of 1857 took place during the

period of Lord Canning.

 The Centres and Leaders of the Revolt

Lucknow – Begum Hazrat Mahal

Kanpur – Nana Saheb

Delhi – General Bhaktkhan

Bihar – Kunwar Singh

Jhansi – Rani Lekshmi Bai

Faridabad – Maulavi Ahmmadulla

Bareili – Khan Bahadur

Major Tribal Movements

Tribe Area Year

Chuars W.Bengal 1768 – 1832

Bhils Khandesh 1818 – 1848 – Sevaram

Hos Chotanagpur 1820-1832

Kolis Sahyadri hillis 1824 – 48

Kharies Khasi hils 1829 – 32 – Tirut Singh and Barmanik

Singh Phos Assam 1830 – 39

Kols Chotanagpur 1831 – 32 – Budho Bagat

Kayar Andhra Pradesh 1840 – 1924 – Alluri Sitaram Raju

Kachnagar Assam 1882 – Sambudhan

Ahom Assam 1828 – 33 – Gomdhar Konovar

Khonds Orissa 1846 – 1914 Chattre Bisayi

Santhals Rajmahal Hills 1855 – 56 Sidhu and Kanhu

Naikadas Gujarat 1858 – 68 Rup Singh Jogia Bhagat

Mundas Chotanagpur 1899 – 1900 Birsa Munda

Bhils South Rajasthan 1933 Govind Guru

Oraons Chotanagpur 1914 – 1915 Jatra Bhagat

Kukis Manipur 1917 – 19 Rani Gaidinlue

Rampa Andhra Pradesh 1916 – Alluri Sitaram Raju

 The revolt of 1857 ended in failure but it promoted

the spirit of Nationalism and Patriotism.

 The 19th Native Infantry

at Berhampur which re-
fused to use the greased

Cartridge and the enfield

rifle, started mutiny in Feb-
ruary 26, 1857.

 The first shot was fired on

March 29 by Mangal

Pandey (of Ballia, UP) of

the 14th Bengal Infantry at

Barrakpore of Bengal.

 Mangal Pandey was hanged to death on 29 March


 May 10, 1857 witnessed the real mutiny at Meerut

then in Delhi on 11th May.


Kharies Khasi hils 1829 – 32 – Tirut Singh and Barmanik

Kols Chotanagpur 1831 – 32 – Budho Bagat

Kayar Andhra Pradesh 1840 – 1924 – Alluri Sitaram Raju

Ahom Assam 1828 – 33 – Gomdhar Konovar

Khonds Orissa 1846 – 1914 Chattre Bisayi

Santhals Rajmahal Hills 1855 – 56 Sidhu and Kanhu

Naikadas Gujarat 1858 – 68 Rup Singh Jogia Bhagat

Mundas Chotanagpur 1899 – 1900 Birsa Munda

Bhils South Rajasthan 1933 Govind Guru

Oraons Chotanagpur 1914 – 1915 Jatra Bhagat

Kukis Manipur 1917 – 19 Rani Gaidinlue

Rampa Andhra Pradesh 1916 – Alluri Sitaram Raju

 The first British to loose

his life was Col.Finnis Meerut.

 Bahadurshah II surren-
dered to Lt. W.S.R. Hodson on Sep-
tember 21, 1957 at Humayun’s Tomb

in Delhi.

 The capture of Delhi and

the proclamation of Bahadurshah as

the Emperor of Hindustan gave a

positive political meaning to the re-

 The immediate cause for

the 1857 revolt was the introduction

of the greased Catridges.

 Educated middle class

section of Indian population did not

support the revolt fo 1857.

 As a result of the revolt

of 1857 the then Governor General

Lord Canning was appointed as the

Viceroy of India.

 On November 1, 1858 a

proclamation was made by the

Queen to the people of India in

eighteeen languages.
 ‘‘The best and the bravest mili-
tary leader of the rebels’’ sir

Hugh Ross said this about Rani

of Jhansi.

 The original name of Rani of

Jhansi was Mani Karnika.

 The administration by Indian

civil service officers started as

a result of the Queen’s proclamation.

 The revolt was completely crusted in 1858.

 Benjamin Disraeli described the revolt as a ‘‘Na-
tional Rising’’.

 V.D. Savarkar in his book ‘‘First war of Inde-
pendence’’ called it ‘‘The First War of Indepen-

 ‘‘Eighteen Fifty Seven’’ is a book written by

Surendra Nath Sen.

The Great Indian National Movement

 The most important events during Lord Duferin’s

Period (1884-1888) were the third Anglo Burmese

War (1885-86) and the establishment of the first

All India organisation, the Indian National Con-

 The INC was founded in December 28, 1885 at the

Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit College, Bombay.

 72 delegates participated in the first session of

the INC.

 It was founded by A.O. Hume a retired Civil Ser-

 W.C. Banerjee was the first president of INC.

 The Indian Association of S.N. Banerjee and

Anand Mohan Bose, organised an All Indian Na-
tional Conference in 1883

December. They had

given a call for another

conference in 1885.

 The term ‘congress’ was

desired from the history

of The United States of


 ‘Congress’ means as-
sembly of the people.

 The name Congress was suggested to the

organisation by DadaBai Naoroji.

 Dadabai Naoroji founded the East Indian Asso-
ciation in 1866.

 A.O. Hume was the General Secretary of INC till


 The Second Session of the INC met at Calcutta in

December 1886, under the presidentship of

Dadabhai Naoroji. Here the National Conference

merged itself with the INC.

 The second session was attended by 436 del-
egates and there were 2000 delegates in 1889.

 The period from 1885 to 1905 is known as the

Moderate Phase of Indian National Congress.

Prominent leaders of this phase were Dadabhai

Naoroji, Badruddin Tyabji, Pheroz Shah Mehta,

Surendranath Banerjee, Gopalakrishna Gokhale


 ‘‘We do not ask favours, we only want justice’’,

these were the words Dadabhai Naroji.

 Dadabhai Noaroji is the author of the book ‘‘Pov-
erty and UnBritish Rule in India’’ which con-
tains the famous ‘‘drain theory’’.

 The British committee of INC was founded in 1889.

 Aurobindo Ghosh called INC a ‘‘begging insti-

 Bibin Chandra Pal viewed ‘‘INC playing with


 Tilak, the father of Indian unrest said ‘‘INC should

distinguish between begging and claiming

right’’ Tilak said ‘‘Rights are not begged they

are claimed’’.

 The congress sessions lasts only for three days

a year.

 Dadabhai Naoroji is known as ‘‘The Grand Old

Man of India’’. He was the first Indian to become

a member of the House of Commons on the Lib-
eral Partys ticket. He became the president of INC

thrice, in 1886, 1893 and 1906. He founded ‘Gyan

Prakash Mandali’ and Bombay Association in

1852. He is also known as father of Indian Eco-
nomics and Politics.
 Badruddin Tyabji was the first Indian barrister at

Bombay High Court. He was the first Muslim

president of INC. He became the third president

of INC in Madras session in 1887.

 W.C. Banerjee founded the Bombay chronicle in

1913 and the ‘Moderate school’.

 S.N. Banerjee founded the Indian Association in

1876. He was the first President of Indian National

Liberal Federation (1918).

 Gopalakrishna Gokhale founded the ‘Servants

of India Society in 1905.

 K.T. Telang became the first ‘‘Hardworking sec-
retary’’ of INC.

 Jawaharlal Nehru observed the Early Congress

to be ‘‘an English knowing upper class affair’’.

 George Yule was the first foreigner to become

the President of INC. (1888, Allahabad)

 Gopala Krishna Gokhale was populary known as


Year.. Organisation Founder Place

1838 … Landholders society ……………………….. Dwaraknath Tagore ……………………………. Calcutta

1839 … British India Society………………………… William Adams ………………………………….. London

1851 … British India Association………………….. Devendranath Tagore …………………………. Calcutta

1862 … London India Committee ………………….. C.P. Mudaliar …………………………………….. London

1866 … East India Association …………………….. Dadabhai Naoroji ……………………………….. London

1867 … National Indian Association ……………… Mary Carpenter …………………………………. London

1872 … Indian Society ……………………………….. Anand Mohan Bose …………………………… London

1876 … Indian Association …………………………. Anand Mohan Bose andS.N. Banerjee …… Calcutta

1883 … Indian National Society……………………. Shishir Chandra Bose …………………………. Calcutta

1884 … Indian National Conference ………………. S M Banerjee …………………………………….. Calcutta

1885 … Bombay Presidency Association ……….. Mehta and Telang ……………………………… Bombay

1888 … United India Patriotic Association ……… Sir Syed Ahmed Khan…………………………. Aligarh

1905 … Servants of India Society …………………. G.K. Gokhale …………………………………….. Bombay

1920 … Indian Trade Union Congress …………… NM Joshi (founder) ……………………………. Lucknow

1924 … All India Communist Party………………… Satyabhakta ……………………………………… Kanpur

1928 … Khudai Khidmatgar …………………………. Abdul Gaffar Khan …………………………….. Peshwar

1936 … All India Kisan Sabha ……………………… Sahajananda and N.J. Ranga ………………… Lucknow

1940 … Radical Democratic Party………………….. M.N. Roy …………………………………………. Calcutta

the ‘Socrates of Maharahstra’. M.G. Ranade was

the political guru of Gokhale.

 Gokhale is considered as the political guru of


 Sarojini Naidu was the first

Indian woman to become the

president of Indian National

Congress (1925 Kanpur ses-

 Nellin Sengupta became the

third woman President of INC,

1933 at the Calcutta Session.

in 1906.

 The word Swaraj was first used in the Calcutta

session in1906.

 First Joint session of Congress and Muslim

League was held at Lucknow 1916.

Sarojini Naidu
 First session held in a village was 1937 session

held at Fazipur.

 Only session presided over by Gandhi – Belgaum


 Complete independence was demanded for the

first time (1929) at Lahore.

 For the first time National Song was sung in the

Calcutta session (1896) of INC ie Vande Mataram.

 During the fourth session of INC (1888, Allahabad)

emphasise was given on the formation of its con-

 During the Nagpur session 1891, the word Na-
tional was added to congress.

 During the Poona session (1895) representives

for the second time discussed on the formation

of its Constitution.

 In the Lucknow session of the Congress (1916)

the two factions of congress (extremists and mod-
erates) reunited.

 During the special session of the congress in

Calcutta (1920) Gandhi proposed to start Non-co

operation Movement. Instead of Constitutional

self-government congress declared Swaraj Party

in 1922.

 During the Delhi session (1923) Indian National

Congress decided to establish All India Khadi


 During the Guwahati session of INC (1926) wear-
ing Khadi was made cumpulsory to its workers.

 During the Madras session (1908) its constitu-
tion was formed.

 In Madras session of the INC (1927) proposals

for independence and to boycott Simon Com-
mission were passed

 During the Karachi session (1931) Fundamental

Rights and Economic Policy proposals were


 During its 1932 and 1933 Sessions Government

had declared INC an illegal organisation.

 During the Lucknow session (1936) Nehru ex-
plained for the first time.

 During Faizpur session (1937) Congress

to takepart in election of 1937.

 1938 session of Congress was held in a village


 In the Ramagarh session (1904) decision was

taken on Individual Satyagraha.

 While Britishers tried to use Congress as a safety

valve, Indian leaders tried to use it as a lightning


 During the Tripura session (1939) Subash Chandra

Bose defeated Pattabhi Sitaramayya (Gandhi’s

candidate in presidential election) but later re-
signed and Rajendra Prasad became the presi-

 During Calcutta session (1928) first All India

Youth Congress was established.

 During the Delhi session (1918) along with S.N.

Banerjee many liberals resigned and Rajendra

Prasad became its president.

 Aurobindo published New Lamps For Old. It was

the first systematic critic of the Moderates.

 The radical wing of the INC that emerged at the

end of the 19th century is referred to as the Ex-
tremist Group.

 The main leaders of the Extremist Group were Lala

Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, B.C. Pal and

Aurobindo Ghosh.

 Tilak asserted Swaraj is my birthright and I shall

have it.

 Tilak started two newspapers the Mahratha in

English and the Kesari in Marathi. He started

Sivaji festival to stimulate nationalism.

 Lord Curzon Partitioned Bengal on 20th July 1905

as a part of the ‘Divide and Rule Policy’.

 Rabindra Nath Tagore composed ‘Amer Sonar

Bengla’ as a part of ante

partition movement,

which later became the

National Anthem of


 Boycott of British prod-
ucts was first sug-
gested by Krishna

Kumar Mitra in

 The Swadeshi Movement was started in 1905.

 ‘Charka’ (spinning wheel) came to typify the

popular concern for country’s economic self suf-

 Swadesh Bandhav Samiti of Barisal founded by

Ashwini Dutt was the largest Volunteer body to

support Swadeshi Movement.

 First real labour union – The Printers Union was

formed on October 1905.

 Vande Mataram Movement was started by

Chandra Pal in Madras

 Tilak began the Swadesh Vastra Pracharine

Sabha to propagate Swadeshi Movement.

 Savarkar founded ‘Mitra mela’.

 Chakravarthi Vijiaraghavacharya was the first

Indian leader to undergo imprisonment in 1882.

He was an extremist leader. He was the first In-
dian to draft a Swaraj constitution for India which

was presented at the Madras session in 1927.

 First congress leader to suffer severe terms of

imprisonment for the sake of the country was Bal

Gangadhar Tilak.

 Tilak wrote ‘Gita Rahasya’.

 Bipin Chandrapal started an English weekly New


 Bipin Chandrapal founded Bande Mataram in 1906

(an organization)

 Lala Lajpat Rai is popularly known as Sher-e-
Punjab (Lion of Punjab). He founded and edited

‘‘The Punjabee’’, ‘The Vante Mataram’ and the

English weekly ‘‘The people’’.

 The Bengali daily Yugandar was started by

Aurobindo Gosh. He also started weeklies

‘Karma Yogin’ and ‘Dharma’.

The Formation of the Muslim League


 All India Muslim League was founded under the

Leadership of Aga Khan to divert the Muslims

from the National Political Movement. On Decem-
ber 30th Nawab Salimulla Khan of Dhaka became

its first President.

 Muhammed Iqbal, who presided over the

Allahabad session of the League in 1930 gave

the idea of Separate Muslim State in North West

India. Hence Iqbal is known as the father of the

idea of Pakistan. But the name ‘Pakistan’ was

framed by Rahmat Ali.

 Mohammed Ali Jinnah gave his famous Two Na-
tion Theory in March 1940, at the Lahore session

of the Muslim League.

 Sarojini Naidu called Jinnah the Prophet of Hindu-
Muslim Unity.

 Later Jinhah became the first Governor General of

Pakistan. He is also known as the father of Paki-

Surat Split (1907)

 The clash between the Moderates and Extrem-
ists culminated in a split which occurred at Surat

in 1907.

 Dr. Rash Bihari Bose was the INC President dur-
ing the Surat Split.

 After the Surat Split the congress remained un-
der the control of the Moderates.

 The Moderates did not approve the boycott of

foreign goods but the Extenmists favoured it. The

Moderates continued to have faith in the good

intensions of the British government. They

wanted self government in gradual stages, while

the Extremists wanted complete autonomy at the


Minto-Morley Reforms of 1909

 The Minto Morley Reforms for the first time tried

to introduce communal representation (for

muslims) and a popular element in the govt.

 The real purpose of the reforms of 1909 was to

confuse the Moderate nationalists and to check

the growth of unity among Indians.
Home Rule Movement (1916)

 Home Rule Movement was started by Annie

Besant and Tilak in 1916.

 Self government for India in British Empire and

work for national education, social and political

reform etc were the aims of Home Rule League.

 Annie Besnat was the first woman president of

INC (1917, Calcutta Session)

 Annie Besant set up the newspapers -New India,

Common Weal and Young India (1916).

 Home Rule Movement marks the beginning for

the attainment of Swaraj.

 The Montague declaration of 1917 was the great-
est achievement of the Home Rule League.

 The Lucknow session of the Indian National Con-
gress in 1916 marked the re union of the Moder-
ates and Extremists together at Lucknow in 1916.

 The Lucknow pact was executed between the

congress and Muslim League in 1916.

Montegue – Chelmsford Reforms 1919

 It is also known as the Government of India Act

of 1919.

 In 1918, Edwin Montague, the Secretary of State

and Lord Chelmsford, the Viceroy produced their

scheme of constitutional reforms which led to the

enactment of the Government of India Act of


 The Provincial Legislative Councils were enlarged

and the majority of their members were to be

elected. The provincial government were given

more powers under the system of dyarchy.

 Indian National Congress in a special session at

Bombay in August 1918 criticised the reform as

‘disappointing and unsatisfactory’.

 The Montague Chelmsford reforms introduced

dyarchy in the provinces.

 Provincial subjects were divided into ‘Reversed

subjects’ and ‘‘Transferred Subjects’’.

 Central legislature was made bicameral by this


Jalianwala Bagh Massacre – April 13,


 In 1919, Rowlatt Act, which authorised the gov-
ernment to detain any person without trial was


 The Act was passed during the period of Lord


 The official name of the Rowlatt Act was the An-
archical and Revolutionary Crimes Act (1919).

 Sir Sydney Rowlatt was the president of the com-
mittee to make proposals for the Act.

 C.Sankaran Nair was the only Indian official

member who supported the bill, while all the 22

elected Indian members in the Imperial Legisla-
tive Council opposed the bill.

 Gandhiji set up ‘Rowlatt Committee’ to protest

this act.

 The protest against this ‘Black Act’ was the

strongest in Punjab where it led to the Massacre

at ‘Jalianwala Bagh’ Amritsar on April 13, 1919. It

was on a Baishaki day. The British Officer Gen-
eral Dyer ordered his troops to open fire at un-
armed gathering, who were gathered there to pro-
test against the arrest of their popular leaders

Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew and Dr. Satyapal.

 On this occasion Tagore renounced his Knight-
hood in protest.

 Michael O’Dyer Governor of the Punjab prov-
ince supported the incident and on March 15,

Martial law was declared.

 Gandhiji renounced the ‘Kaiser-i-Hind’ medal

given to him for his work during the Boer War.

 Hunter Committee was appointed to enquire into

the Jallianwallah Massacre (1920)

 Hunter Commissions report was described by

Gandhiji as a ‘white wash’.

 Sardar Udham Singh, who took the name Ram

Muhammed Singh, Sonak Murdered Dyer in En-
gland as a revenge to the Massacre.

 The English House of Lords presented a jewelled

sword to General in which was inscribed ‘‘sav-
iour of the Punjab’’.

Events/Acts/Reforms ………….. Viceroy/Governor Generals

Permanent Settlement (1793)………. Lord Cornwallis

Subsidiary Alliance (1798) ………….. Lord Wellesley

Abolition of Sati (1829) ……. Lord William Bentinck

Introduction of Civil service ………. Lord Cornwallis

Doctrine of Lapse ……………………. Lord Dalhousie

Railways started in India …………… Lord Dalhousie

Post and Telegraph ………………….. Lord Dalhousie

English Education in India .. Lord William Bentinck

Vernacular Press Act (1878) ……………..Lord Lytton

Arms Act (1878) ……………………………Lord Lytton

Local Self Government (1882) ………… Lord Rippon

Ryotwari System ………………………….. Lord Munro

Partition of Bengal (1905) ………………. Lord Curzon

Rowlatt Act (1914) …………………. Lord Chelmsford

Simon Commission (1928) … Lord William Bentinck

Sepoy Mutiny (1857) ………………….. Lord Canning

Queens Proclamation (1858) …………. Lord Canning

Factory Act (1881) ………………………… Lord Ripon

Repeal of Vernacular Press Act (1881)Lord Canning

Indian councils Act/Minto -Morley Reforms (1909)

………………………………………………. Lord Minto II

Partition of Bengal revoked (1911) Lord Hardinge II

Transfer Capital to Delhi (1911) … Lord Hardinge II

Dyarchy in province (1919) ……… Lord Chelmsford

Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy (1919).. Lord Chelmsford

Non co-operation ………………….. Lord Chelmsford

Poorna Swaraj resolution (Lahore 1929) . Lord Irwin

Frist Round Table Conference (1930) ….. Lord Irwin

Gandhi Irwin Pact (1931) ………………….. Lord Irwin

Communal Award (1932) ………….. Lord Wellington

Poona Pact (1932) …………………… Lord Wellington

2nd Round Table Conference(1931) …. Lord Wellington

3rd Round Table Conference (1932) ….. Lord Wellington

Separate Electorates (1932) ………. Lord Wellington

Government of India Act (1935) …. Lord Wellington

Provincial Autonomy (1937) ……… Lord Linlithgow

Cripps Mission (1942) ……………….. Lord Linthgow

Quit India Movement ………………. Lord Linlithgow

Cabinet Mission (1946) …………………. Lord Wavell

INA Trial (1945) …………………………… Lord Wavell

Indian Independence Act 1947) ……. Lord Mountbatten

Partition of India (1947) ………… Lord Mountbatten

Non-Co-operation Movement (1920)

 Non Co-operation Movement was started with

the aim of the annulment of the Rowlatt Act, and

correcting the ‘Punjab wrong’ changing the

‘Khilafat wrong’ as well as moving towards the

cherished goal of ‘swaraj’.

 It was the first mass based political movement

under Gandhiji.

 The movement was launched as per the resolu-
tion of Calcutta session and ratified in Nagpur

session in December 1920.

 The main emphasise of the movement was on

boycott of schools, colleges, law courts and ad-
vocacy of the use of Charka.

 The whole movement was called off on 11th Feb-
ruary 1922 at Gandhi’s insistence following the

news of burning alive of 22 English plicemen by

the angry peasants at ChauriChaura (Chauri

Chaura Incident) in Gorakhpur district of Up on

5th February 1922.

 The Non Cooperation movement converted the

national movement into a mass movement . It

strengthened Hindu-Muslim unity.

Khilafat Movement (1919)

 The main object of the Khilafat Movement was to

force the British Government to change its atti-
tude towards Turkey and restore the Turkish

Sulthan (Khalifa) to his former position.

 A Khilafat committee was formed under the

leadersip of Ali brothers Maulana Azad, Hakim

Ajmal khan, and Hasrat Mohani.

 The Khilafat Movement lost its relevance due to

the reforms of Mustafa Kamal Pasha in Turkey.

Pasha abolished Khilafat and made Turkey a secu-
lar state.

 On 1 June 1920 the Khilafat Committee at

Allahabad unanimously accepted Gandhi’s sug-
gestion of non co-operation and asked him to

lead the Movement.

Indian Working Class

 First organised strike by any section of the work-
ing class was the Signaler’s Strike in May 1899

in the ‘Great Indian Peninsular (GIP) Railway’.

 AITUC was formed in 1920 with Lala Lajpat Rai as

its first President and Dewan Chaman Lal as its

General Secretary.

 Indian National Congress at its Gaya session of

1922 welcomed the formation of AITUC.

 Government appointed the Royal Commission on

Labour in 1929.

Simon Commission

 In November 1927, the British Government ap-
pointed the Indian Statutory Commission, popu-
larly known as Simon Commission, to go it to the

question of further constitution reform.

 The Congress passed a resolution to boycott the

Simon Commission at its Madras session 1927.

 The day Simon landed at Mumbai ; 3 February

1928 all the major cities and towns observed a

complete hartal.

 The Madras session 1927 was presided over by

Dr. Ansari.

 On the arrival of the Commission in Mumbai in

1928, it met with the slogan ‘‘Go back Simon’’.

 There were Seven members in the Simon Com-
mission. but no Indian.

 Lala Lajpat Rai was severely wounded in a po-
lice Lathi charge and died while protesting against

the Commission.

 To avenge the death of Lala Lajpat Rai, Bhagat

Singh shot dead General Saunders.

Some Commissions

 Amini Commission on Land Revenue and Famine


 Fraser Commission on Agriculture (1902)

 Hunter Commission on Punjab Disturbance (1919)

Books and Authors

Vande Mataram ………………… Aurobindo Ghosh

New Lamps for Old …………… Aurobindo Ghosh

Bhavani Mandir ……………….. Aurobindo Ghosh

Hind Swaraj ……………………… Mahatma Gandhi

Gora ………………………….. Rabindranath Tagore

Ghare Baiyare ……………… Rabindranath Tagore

Gitanjali ……………………… Rabindranath Tagore

Discovery of India ………………………. J.L. Nehru

Essays in Indian Economics ……….M.G. Ranade

Arctic Home of the Aryans ……………. B.G. Tilak

Geeta Rahasya …………………………….. B.G. Tilak

Poverty and Un-British Rule in IndiaDada Bhai Naoroji

We ……………………………………. M.S. Golwalkar

Durgesh Nandini …. Bankim Chandra Chatterjee

Bang Darshan……… Bankim Chandra Chatterjee

Anand Math ………. Bankim Chandra Chatterjee

India in Transition ………………………. M.N. Roy

Economic History of British India ……. R.C. Dutt

The Indian Struggle …… Subhash Chandra Bose

Indian Musalmans …………………………… Hunter

Gana Devta ……. Tarashankar Bandhopadhyaya

Philosophy of the Bomb….. Bhagavati Charan Vohra

Why Socialism ……………. Jayaprakash Narayan

Gandhi Versus Lenin ………………….. S.A. Dange

Problem of the East ………………….. Lord Curzon

Neel Darpam …………………. Deen Bandu Mithra

India Today …………………………………. R.P. Dutt

India Wins Freedom ………… Abdul Kalam Azad

Indian Unrest …………………….. Valentine Chirol

Prachya Aur Paschchatya …. Swami Vivekanand

Gau Karunanidhi ……………….. Swami Dyayanda

Letters from Russia ………… Rabindranth Tagore

Wither India ……………………………….. J.L.Nehru

Soviet Asia ……………………………….. J.L. Nehru

Pather Debi ………………. Avanindranath Tagore

History of Hindu Chemistry ……………… P.C. Rai

Peasantry of Bengal ……………………… R.C. Dutt
 Rowlatt Commission on Sedition (1919)

 Butler Commission on Indian States (1927)

 Sapru Commission on Unemployment (1935)

 Whitley Commission on Labour (1939)

 Floud Commission on Tenancy in Bengal (1940)

Peasant Movements

Indigo Revolt – 1860

 The revolt was directed against the British Plant-
ers who behaved like Feudal Lords in their estates.

 The revolt began after Hemachandrakar deputy

Magistrate, published on 17 August, 1859 a proc-
lamation to policmen that they should interefere

with the rights of the peasants to saw whatever

they preferred.

 It began at Govindpur village in Nadia and was

led by Digambar Bishwas and Bishnu Bishwas.

 Din Bandu Mitra’s novel Neel Darpan protrayed

this struggle.

 An Indigo Commission was also appointed in 1860.

Pabna Revolt (Bengal)

 In may 1874 an Agrarian League was formed in

Pabna. Main leader was Ishan Chandra Roy. The

revolt was against increased rent.

Champaran Satyagraha (1917)

 The peasants in this region were forced to culti-
vate indigo at the prices decided by the British.

This system was known as Tinkathia system.

 Gandhiji’s first Satyagraha in India was the

Champaran in 1917.

Kheda Satyagraha (1918)

 Chiefly directed against the government.

 It was started by Madan Mohan Malavya later

taken up by Gandhiji in 1918.

Swaraj Party (1923)

 C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru resigned from con-
gress on 31 December 1922 and founded the

Swaraj Party on 1st January 1923.

 Its early name was Congress Khilafat Swaraj


 C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru were the frist presi-
dent and Secretary respectively of the Swaraj


 C.R. Das gave the slogan ‘Enter the Council’

 Swaraj Party was formed at Allahabad.

 The 1924 when Gandhi came out of Jail he sup-
ported the programme of Swaraj Party.

Trade Union Movement in India

 First Textile Mill : Bombay (1853)

 First Jute Mill at Rishra in Bengal (1855)

 First Factory Act was passed in 1881.

 The Second Factory Act was passed in 1891.

 First Industrial Commission was appointed in


 The first real labour union was formed in October

1901 in Calcutta called the Printers Union.

 The Madras Labour Union was the first

organisation with regular membership and was

started by G. Ramanujalu Naidu, G. Challapathi

and was presided over by B.P. Wadia in 1918.

 The All India Trade Union Congress was founded

in 1920. The Indian National Congress President

of the year was elected as its President.

 The Trade Union Act of 1926 organised trade

unions as legal Associations.

 The Jamshedpur Labour Association was

founded by S.N. Haldar and Byomkesh

Chakravarthy in 1920.

 In 1929, All India Trade Union Federation was

formed under the leadership of NM Joshi.

 The Congress Socialist Party was founded in


 Kanpur Labour Enquiry Committee was founded

under the chairmanship of Rajendra Prasad.

 In 1944 national leaders lead by Sardar Patel

organised the Indian National Trade Union Con-

Civil Disobedience movement -1930

 In 1930, Gandhiji launched the Civil Disobedience


 In 1929 INC adopted ‘Poorna Swaraj’ (complete

independence) as its goal at the Lahore session

of the congress under the Presidentship of Nehru.

It also decided for launching a Civil Disobedi-
ence Campaign.

 At midnight on 31 December 1929, Jawaharlal

Nehru unfurled the newly adopted Tricolour Flag

of freedom on the bank of river Ravi.

 26 January 1930 was fixed as the first indepen-
dent day.

 The Civil Disobedience Movement was started

by Gandhiji with his famous Dandi March

 He started his Salt Satyagraha or the Dandi

March on the morning of 12 March 1930 with a

band of 78 volunteers. It was 385km (240 miles)

Journey from Sabarmati Ashram at Ahmedabad

to Dandi on the West Coast. On April 5, at 6 in the

morning Gandhiji and his volunteers picked up

Salt lying on the sea-shore. (Sarojini Naidu, at

this hailed Gandhiji as ‘‘Law breaker’’)

 In Tamil Nadu C. Rajagopalachari led a Salt

March from Trichirapalli to Vedaranyam on the

Tanjore Coast. He was arrested on 30 April, 1930.

 In Malabar K. Kelappan, the hero of the Vaikkom

Satyagraha, walked from Calicut to Payyannur to

break the Salt law.

 Gandhiji was arrested on May 5, 1930. After his

arrest his place was taken by Abbas Tyabji and

after the arrest of Abbas leadership passed on to

Sarojini Naidu.

 Lord Irwin, the then Viceroy called the decision

of Gandhi as a ‘Kindergarten stage’ of revolu-

 Irwin called Gandhi’s breaking of salt law as a

‘Storm in a tea cup’

 ‘Salt suddenly became a mysterious word, a word

of power’’ These words were spoken by Nehru

on the occassion of Salt Satyagraha.

 On 18, April 1930 Chittagong Armoury was raided

by Surya sen.

 On 23 April 1930, Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan’

Khudai Khidmatgar activated the NWFP leading

to rioting where the Hindu Gahrwal Rifles refused

to fire on Muslim rioters.

 Darshana Salt Works (21 may) Satyagraha led

by Sarojini Naidu, Imam Saheb and Manilal


Governors Generals of India

1772-1785 ………………………..Warren Hastings

1786 – 1793 ……………………….. Lord Cornwallis

1793 – 1798 …………………………… Sir Joh Shore

1798 – 1805 ………………………… Lord Wellesley

1807- 1813 ……………………………… Lord Minto

1813 -1823 …………………………..Lord Hastings

1823 – 1828 ………………………….. Lord Amherst

1828 – 1835 ……………….. Lord William Bentinck

1835 – 1842 ………………….. Baron Ellenborough

1842 – 1844 ……………… William Wilberfore Bird

1844 – 1848 …………………………. Lord Hardinge

1848 – 1856 ………………………… Lord Dalhousie

1856 – 1858 ………………………….. Lord Canning

Viceroys of British India

1858 – 1862 ………………………….. Lord Canning

1862 – 1863 ………………………… 8th Earl Elgin I.

1863 ……………………………… Sir Robert Napier

1863 – 1864 ……………….. Sir William T. Dension

1864 – 1869 …………………………… Earl of Mayo

1872 – ……………………………. Sir John Strachey

1872 – 1876 …………………… Baron North Brook

1876 – 1880 …………………………….. Lord Lytton

1880-1884 ………………………………. Lord Ripon

1884 -1888 …………………………… Lord Dufferin

1888-1894 ………………………..Lord Lansdowne

1894 -1899 ……………………………. Lord Elgin II

1899 – 1905 ……………………………. Lord Curzon

1905 – 1910 …………………………… Lord Minto II

1910 – 1916 ………………………. Lord Hardinge II

1916 – 1921 ………………………. Lord Chelmsford

1921 -1926 …………………………… Lord Reading

1926-1931 ……………………………….. Lord Irwin

1931 -1936 ………………………. Lord Wellington

1936 -1942 ……………………….. Lord Linlithgow

1942-1947 ……………………………… Lord Wavell

1947 (March 13 – August 14) ……………………..

…………………………… Lord Louis Mounbatten

Governors – Generals of Indian Union

1947 (August 15)

1948 (June 20) ……….. Lord Louis Mountbatten

1950 Jan. 25 ………………….. C. Rajagopalachari
 One notable feature of the Civil Disobedience

Movement of Gandhiji was wide participation of


Round Table Conferences

 The British government organised the First Round

Table Conference at London to discuss the Simon

Commission Report.

 The first Round Table Conference was from 12

Nov. 1930 to 19 January 1931.

 British Prime Minister Ramsay Mac Donald pre-
sided over the First Round Table Conference.

 The first Round Table Conference was attended

by Tej Bahadur Supru B.R. Ambedkar, Muhammed

Shafi, M.A. Jinnah etc. Gandhiji did not partici-
pate in it.

 As a result of the Gandhi Irwin pact (1931) Con-
gress decided to stop the Civil Disobedience


 Gandhi-Irwin Pact was signed on 5th March 1931.

 The Second Round Table Conference started in

London on 7 September 1931. It was attended by

107 Indians including Gandhiji.

 The Second Round Table Conference was a fail-
ure. So the Civil Disobedience movement was re-
started on 3rd January 1932.

 Sarojini Naidu participated in the Second Round

Table Conference.

 The Communal Award was announced on Au-
gust 16, 1932 by British Prime Minister Ramsay

at Bombay. By this the separate electorate for de-

Mac Donald.

 By the Communal Award minority communities

were given Separate Communal Electroates.

 The Communal Award was opposed by Gandhiji

and he decided to go on fast unto death.

 The Third and the last Round Table Conference

was held between Nov. 17 and December 24, 1932.

 The Third Round Table Conference agreed upon

certain broad principles for the future constitu-
tional set up: Which were published later as ‘white

paper’ (March 1933)

 The Poona Pact was signed on 25 September 1932at Bombay. By this the separate electorate for

pressed classes was abolished.

 Harijan upliftment now became Gandhiji’s main

concern. He started an All India Anti-Untouch-
ability League in September 1932 and the weekly

Harijan in January 1933. The January 8, 1933 was

observed as ‘‘Temple Entry Day’’.

 Only Indian to participate all the three Round Table

conference was B.R. Ambedkar.


 It was above all Jawaharlal Nehru who imported a

socialist vision to the national movement.

 At the Lahore session in 1929 Nehru introduced

this idea.

 The Congress Socialist Party was founded in

October 1934 at Bombay under the leadership of

Jaya Prakash Narayan, Acharya Narendra Dev

and Minoo Masani

 The CSP supported the Quit India Movement.

 Socialist ideas led to the emergence of Commu-
nist Party of India (CPI) and the Congress So-
cialist party.

 Towards the end of 1920 M.N. Roy and other In-
dian emigres at Tashkant formed a communist

party of India. In India on 1st September, 1924

Famous Conspiracy Cases

Satyabhakta in a press note announced the for-

Case Date Accused

Nasik 1909-10 Vinayak Savarkar


Alipore 1908 Aurobindo Ghosh

Hawrah case 1910 Jatin Mukharjee

Dacca Case 1910 Pulin Das

Delhi case 1915 Amirchand, Awad

Lahore case 1929 – 30 Bhagat Singh, Rajguru

Banaras case 1915 – 16 Sachindranath Sanyal

Kakori case 1925 Rama Prasad Bismil and

Bihari and Bal Mukund

and Sukhdev


mation of the Communist Party of India with him-
self as the Secretary.

as a protest against Britains decision to drag In-

 In December 1928 the All India Worker and Peas-
ants Party came into existence.

 The government declared CPI illegal in 1934.

Revolutionary Terrorism

 Ram Prasad Bismil, Jogesh Chatterjee and

Sachindranath Sanyal founded the Hindustan

Republican Associations (HRA) in 1924, whose

object was to establish a Federal Republic.

 On 9 August 1925 ten revolutionaries robbed the

8-Downtrain at Kakori, near Lucknow. This is

known as Kakori Conspiracy.

 HRA became Hindustan Socialist Republican

Association in 1928.

 Bhagat Singh and B.K. Dutt threw bomb on the

Central Legislative Assembly against the passage

of the Public Safety Bill and the Trade Disputes


 Chittagong Armoury Raid was planned by

Suryasen and his associates on 18 April 1930.

 In March 1929, a group of 31 labour leaders were

tried in Meerat Conspiracy Case.

 Provisional Government of Free India was set up

at Kabul in 1915 by Mahendrapratap and


 Death of Jitin Das, a revolutionary in jail on the

64th day of a hunger strike was in 1929.

 Execution of Bhagatsingh Sukh Dev and RajGuru

by the British was on March 23, 1931.

 Death of Chandrasekhar Azad in 1931 in an en-
counter with police at Allahabad.

Government of India Act (1935)

 The government of India Act 1935 proposed a

government based on Federal System.

 It ensured complete autonomy

 First general election as per the Act of 1935 was

held in 1937, Congress got the majority.

 But all the Congress Ministers resigned in 1939as a protest against Britains decision to drag In-dia into the Second World War.

August offer (1940)

 The famous proclamation made by Lord

Linlithgow on 8 August 1940 is known a August


 This ensured to give dominion status and free-
dom to frame constitution based on representa-
tive nature.

Cripps Mission 1942

 The mission under Stafford Cripps (the Lord Privy

Seal and a member of the British War Cabinet) ar-
rived in India on March 22, 1942 to find out a politi-
cal formula for transfer of power to Indians.

 The main proposals of the mission was to grant

Dominion status to India at the end of the Sec-
ond World War and setting up of an interim gov-
ernment to administer the country in all matters

except defence.

 The Congress and the League rejected the offer

Gandhiji called the cripps offer ‘‘a Post Dated

Cheque on a Crashing Bank’’.

Quit India Movement (1942)

 The failure of the Cripps Mission was the major

reason for the beginning of Quit India Movement.

 The All India Congress Committee met at Bombay

on August 8, 1942 passed the famous Quit India


 The Movement began on 9 August 1942.

 On the occasion of the Quit India Movement

Gandhiji gave his famous call of ‘Do or Die’.

 The term Quit India was coined by an American

Journalist while interviewing Gandhiji.

 ‘‘Quit India’’, ‘‘Bharat Chodo’’ ‘Do or Die’ these

were the powerful slogans of Quit India move-

 Muslim League new slogan during the Movement

was ‘‘Divide and Quit’’.

 C. Rajagopalachari evolved, in 1944, a formula

called the CR Formula to end the struggle be-
tween the Congress and Muslim League.
 Lord Wavell, the then Governor General offered

the famous Wavellplan in 1945 at Shimla.

Royal Indian Navy Mutiny (1946)

 On 18thFebruary 1946 1,100 naval ratings of the

Signal School of HMIS Talwar (ship) in Bombay

went on strike against racial discrimination regard-
ing pay and food.

 BC Dutt was arrested for writing ‘Quit India’ on

HMIS Talwar.

 Both Congress and Muslim league did not help

the mutineers.

Cabinet Mission (1946)

 The British Government headed by Attlee of the

Labour Party, appointed a Cabinet Mission con-
sisting of Pethic Lawrence, Stafford Cripps and

A.V. Alexander.

 Cabinet Mission proposed a federal government

for the whole of India.

 Elections to the Constituent Assembly were held

under the Cabinet Mission Plan, in 1946.

 Cabinet Mission arrived in India in 1946 March


 The Mission was headed by Lord Pethwick


 It provided an interim government during the time

of Lord Wavell

 It also provided for the establishment of a

Constitutent Assembly to frame a constitution

 On 2 September 1946 an Interim Government

headed by Nehru came to power.

 It was a 12 member Ministry.Three members were


 Liakqat Ali Khan was the Finance Minister in the

Interim Government.

 The Muslim League proclaimed ‘Direct Action

Day’ on 16 August 1946 with battle cry of

Pakisthan’, ‘Larke Langa Pakistan’.

 The Muslim League proclaimed September 2, 1946

as a ‘Day of Mourning’.

 Communal riots broke out in Naokhali from No-
vember 7, 1946 to March 2, 1947 Gandhiji toured

in these 49 villages.

 December 3 – 6, 1946 The British Prime Minister

Clement Atlee summoned Jawaharlal Nehru,

Baldev Singh, MuhammedAli Jinnah and Liaqat

Ali Khan for an extraordinary conference at 10

Dawning Street London.

 Constituent Assembly: The constituent Assem-
bly started its session on December 9, 1946 in the

Library of the Council Chamber without the par-
ticipation of the League.

 Rajendra Prasad was elected as the President of

the Constituent Assembly.

Mountbatten Plan (1947)

 Mountbatten arrived in India on March 22, 1947.

 Mountbatten became the last Viceroy of India,

the last Governor General of India and first gov-
ernor general of free India.

 Mountbatten proposed a plan to divide India.

 Clement Atlee announced the plan in the House

of Commons on 2 June 1947, hence it came to be

known as 3rd June Plan.

 Work of the demarcation of the boundaries was done by Radcliff . Hence the line is known as
Radcliff line.

 The 3rd June Plan was given effect by the In-
dian Independence Act 1947.

 The dominion of Pakistan was inaugurated in Karachi on 14th August 1947. India became free
on 15th 1947.

Integration of States

 The integration of Princely States was done by Sardar Patel with the assistance of V.P. Menon.

 By August 1947, all the 554 States, with the exception only of Hyderabad, Kashmir and Junagarh
acceded to the union.

 On 26th October the Maharaja of Kashmir, Harisingh signed the ‘‘Instrument of Accession’’
and Sheik Abdulla is known as ‘Lion of Kash-mir’.

 The Nizam of Hyderabad signed the agreementto join the Indian Union through police action in

Indian National Army (INA)

 The idea of Indian National Army was first conceived by Mohan Singh at Malaya, an officer in
British Indian Army.

 The first division of INA was formed in Septem-
ber 1942 with Japanese help.

 Subash Chandra Bose began to associate with INA by July 1943. The command was handed over by Rash Bihari Bose

 To the Indians Subash Chandra Bose said ‘you give me blood I will give you freedom’..

 Subash Chandra Bose set up two INA headquarters at Rangoon and Singapore.

 The women’s regiment called the ‘Rani Jhansi’

regiment was under Captain Lekshmi Segal.

 He was the first to address Gandhiji as the ‘Father of the nation’’ in his appeal on the ‘Azad Hind Radio’ Singapore.

 In may 1944 INA captured Mowdok and hoisted the tri-colour flag on Indian soil.

 The Japanese government handed over the Andaman and Nickobar island to him which wererenamed ‘Shaheed and Swaraj’ islands respectively.

 The INA troops surrendered before the British

army in 1945.

 The British Government of India charged INA soldiers of waging war against the king. The tri-
als were held in the Red Fort in Delhi.

 The first three accused were capt. P.K. Sehgal ,Capt. Shah Nawaz and Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon.

 Subash Chandra Bose was born at Cuttack in Orissa.

 He appeared for the Indian Civil Service in 1920 and passed with merit, but resigned before com-
pleting his probation in April 1921, he joined the Congress and plunged into the national movement.

 He was unanimously elected President at the Haripura Congress session in 1938 and was re-
elected for the second term at the Tripuri session in 1939, defeating Dr. Pattabhi S
who was supported by Gandhiji.

 He resigned the Presidentship of INC in April 1939 and founded All India Forward Block and the Kisan Sabha.

 But in January 1941, he escaped out of India and reached Berlin (Germany) from where he arrived in Singapore in 1943.

 Bose was popularly known as the ‘Netaji’

 He was reportedly killed in an air cash over Taipei,

Taiwan on August 18, 1945.

 A.N. Mukherjee Commission enquired about the mysterious disappearance of Subash Chandra Bose.

The Viceroys of India

Lord Canning (1856 – 62)

 Revolt of 1857.

 Queen Victoria’s Proclamation and passing of the Indian Act of 1858.

 Withdrawal of the ‘Doctrine of Lapse’ in 1859, which was passed by Lord Dalhousie.

 Foundation of the Universities of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras in 1857.

 Indigo Revolt in Bengal in 1859-60.

 White Mutiny by the European troops of East India Company in 1859.

 Bahadurshah II was sent to Rangoon

 Enactment of Indian Penalcode.

 Indian Councils Act of 1861.

 Enactment of Indian Code of Criminal Procedure.

Lord Elgin (1862 – 63)

 Supressed the Wahabi Movement

Sir John Lawrence (1864 – 69)

 Famine commission was constituted.

 Followed a policy of rigid non-interference in Afghanistan called policy of masterly inactivity.

 Set up highcourts in Calcutta Bombay and Madras (1865).

Lord Mayo (1869-72)

 Wahabi and Kuka movements were active.

 Mayo was murdered

Lord Lytton (1876-80)

 Passing of the Royal Titles Act of 1876 and the assumption of the title empress of India (Qaiser-i-
hind) by Queen Victoria.

 Holding of Delhi Durbar in 1877.

 Passing of the Vernacular Press Act of 1878.

 Passing of the Arms Act of 1878.

 Lowering of maximum age from 21 years to 19 years for the Civil Services Examination, an attempt to prevent Indians from entering Civil Services.

 Appointment of first Famine Commission under Sir Richard Strachy.

 Started Statutory Civil Service.

 Second Anglo Afghan war in 1878.

Lord Ripon (1880-84)

 Passing of the first Factory Act in 1881 for the welfare of child labour.

 Repeal of Vernacular Press Act in 1882.

 Foundation of the Local Self Government (1882)

 Holding of the first decennial and regular census in 1881 which put the total population at 254 mil-

 Appointment of an Education Commission under Sir William Hunter in 1882.

 The Ilbert bill controversy.

 Famine code of 1883.

Lord Dufferin (1884 – 88)

 Foundation of Indian National Congress

 Third Anglo Burmese war

 Commented on the Congress being a microscopic minority

Lord Curzon (1899-1905)

 Creation of a new province called the North West Frontier Province.

 Appointment of Universities Commission in 1902 under Sir Thoma Releigh and passing of Indian

Universities Act 1904.

 Partition of Bengal

Lord Hardinge (1910-1916)

 Coronation durbar in 1911 at Delhi in honour of George V

 A separate state of Bihar and Orissa was created in 1911.

 India’s capital was decided to shift to Delhi in 1911 and shifted in 1912.

 Kamagata Maru incident.

 1916, Saddler committee on Univerisities appointed.

 Tilak founded Home Rule League.

Lord Chelmsford (1916 – 21)

 Foundation of women’s university at Poona.

 Hunter Commission on Jalianwala Bagh Massacre.

 Chamber of Princes established in 1921.

 Home Rule League founded by Annie Besant.

 Third Afghan war started.

 Aligarh Muslim University was founded in 1920.

Lord Reading (1921-26)

 Foundation of Rashtriya Swayam Sevak Sangh by K.B. Hedgewar at Nagpur in 1925.

 Beginning of Indianisation of the officers cadre of the Indian Army.

 Railway Budget was separated from General Budget in 1921.

 Hilton Young Committee on currency was appointed in 1926.

 Viswa Bharati University started by Rabindra Nath Tagore.

 Train Robbery at Kakori.

Lord Irwin (1926-31)

 Popularly known as Christian Viceroy.

 Simon Commission arrives in Bombay.

 Meerut conspiracy case.

 Gandhi started his Dandi March.

 Chitagong Armoury Raid.

 First Round Table Conference.

 Gandhi-Irwin pact.

Lord Willington (1931-36)

 Communal Award in 1932 by Ramsay MacDonald.

 Third Round Table Conference in 1932.

 White Paper on Political reforms in India was published in 1933.

 Burma was separated from British Empire in 1935.

Lord Linlithgow (1936-43)

 August Offer by the Viceroy in which he declared dominion status as the ultimate goal of British policy in India.

 In 1940 individual Civil Disobedience Movement was started.

 1942 Cripps Mission came.

 Congress starts Quit India Movement.

Lord Wavell (1943-47)

 Wavell Plan, Shimla conference Congress represented by Maulana Azad

 RIN Mutiny (1946)

 Interim Government was formed (September 2,1946)

 Prime Minister of Britain Clement Atlee announced to give independence to India by June 1948.

 Cabinet Mission 1946.

 16th August 1946, Muslim League begins ‘Direct Action day’.

Lord Mountbatten (1947-48)

 His plan to make India free on August 15 1947 is also known as June 3rd Plan.

 First Governor General of free India

Rajagopalachari (1948-50)

 First Indian Governor General.

Father of Our Nation

 Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, called Mahatma, is the father of our nation.

 He was born on 2 October 1869 at Porbandar in Gujarat as the son of Diwan Karamchand and his fourth wife ‘Putilibai’.

 In 1883, at the age of 14, he married Kasthurba Later he went to England to study law.

 In 1893 he went to South Africa to practice law.

 After his studies in England Gandhiji began his practice as a lawyer in Bombay and Rajcot.

 He was subjected to racial discrimination and organised Natal Indian Congress in 1894. There he started a weekly, Indian opinion 1904.

 Gandhiji experimented the weapon Satyagraha for the first time in South Africa in September 1906 to protest against the Asiatic Ordinance issued against the Indians in Transval

 Gandhiji’s first imprisonment was in 1908 at Johannesberg in South Africa.

 In 1899 during the Boer war Gandhiji organised Indian Ambulance Corps for the British.

 Gandhiji was humiliated and ousted from Peter Marits Burg Railway Station in South Africa.

 Gandhiji became a Brahmachari in 1906.

 Gandhiji started Tolstoy Farm South Africa in 1910.

 Gandhiji started the Foenix Settlement in Durban.

 Gandhian Era in Indian politics is from 1915 -1948.

 He returned to India on 9th January 1915, leaving South Africa for ever. January 9 is observed as ‘Pravasi Bharatiya Divas’ to commemorate this.

 Gandhiji’s first Satyagraha in India was for the right of Indigo workers in Champaran in 1917.

 Gandhiji’s first fast was in 1918 in connection with the strike of mill workers in Ahmedabad.

 He started the Satyagrahasrama on the banks of Sabarmati river in Ahmedabad in 1917.

 In 1918 he started two weeklies – Young India in English and Navjeevan in Gujarati.

 Gandhiji abandoned his title Kaiser -i-Hind in protest against Jallianwalabagh Massacre (1919)

 Gandhijis first National Movement was organised against the Rowlat Act in 1919.

 Gandhiji launched the Non-Co-operation Movement on August 1, 1920 which caused the violent incident at Chauri Chaura in UP. This incident initiated Gandhiji to suspend the movement in 1922.

 Gandhiji renounced worldly pleasures and be came a symbol of halfnaked villager in 1920.

 The only Congress session presided over by Gandhiji was the one which held at Belgaum in 1924.

 Gandhiji started his historic Dandi March on 12 March 1930 related to the Salt Satyagraha.

 Gandhiji partcipated in the Second Round Table Conference in London in 1931 August.

 With the aim of eradicating untouchability Gandhiji founded the All India Harijan Samaj in 1932.

 Gandhiji started his journey for Harijan upliftment from the Wardha Ashram in Maharashtra.

 Gandhiji called low class people as ‘Harijan’ which means ‘sons of God’.

 He started the weekly Harijan in 1933.

 Gandhi-Irwin pact was signed on 5 march 1931.

 Gandhiji was associated with the Vaikom and Guruvayur Sathyagraha in Kerala.

 Gandhiji called the Temple Entry Proclamation a wonder of the Modern Age.

 Pattabhi Sitaramayya Gandhiji’s candidate for the Presidentship of INC was defeated by Subash Chandra Bose.

 Gandhiji called Subhah Chandra Bose the‘Palriots’, Patriot

 Winston Churchil called Gandhiji a ‘‘Half naked Seditious Fakir.

 The name ‘Gurudev’ was given to Tagore by Gandhiji

 Tagore called Gandhiji ‘Mahatma’.

 ‘Wardha’ scheme of education was the basic education policy formulated by Gandhiji.

 In 1940 Gandhiji started Individual Satyagraha and selected Vinoba Bhave and Nehru for that.

 In 1942 August 9 Gandhiji started the Quit India Movement and gave the call ‘Do or Die’.

 Gandhiji called the Cripps Mission (1942) ‘‘a post dated cheque on a drowning bank’’.

 Gandhiji was assassinated by Nadhuram Vinayak Godse on 30 January 1948 at the Birla house in Delhi. He died at 5 : 17 pm. ‘He Ram, He Ram’ was his last words.

 Godse used an Italian Beritta Pistol to shoot at Gandhiji.

 Gandhiyum Godseyum is a book written by N.K. Krishnavarier.

 ‘Mem Nadhuram Godse Bolthai’ is a play written by Pradeep Dalvi to humiliate Gandhi.

 After the assassination, The R.S.S was banned in 1948 February 4.

 Narayan Dathathrya Apte was hanged to death along with Godse on the Gandhi Assassination case.

 French Novelist who wrote the biography of Gandhiji was Romain Rolland.

 Medalim Slaiduin a British woman became a follower Gandhi and came to be known as Meera Ben.

 The original autobiography of Gandhiji written in Gujarathi language was ‘Sathya na Karogo’.

 Liberty or Death written by Patrick French deals with antogonism in Gandhis life.

 Gandhiji called his hanging clock my little dictator.

 ‘Ente Gurunathan’ poem written by Vallathol Narayana Menon speaks about Gandhiji.

 ‘That’s my mother’ Gandhiji said these words about Bhagavatgita.

 Gandhiji’s political guru was Gopalakrishna Gokhale.

 Gandhi’s prisoner is a book written by Uma Dupfeli Mistri , daughter of Gandhis son, Manilal.

 Harilal, Manilal, Ramdas and Devdas were Gandhijis four sons.

 ‘I follow Mahatma’ is a book written by K.M.Munshi.

 ‘Unto This Last’ of John Ruskin greately influenced Gandhiji

 R.K. Narayan wrote ‘Waiting for the Mahatma’.

 ‘A week with Gandhi, ‘Gandhi and Stalin and Life of Mahatma Gandhi are the books written by Fischer.

 Gandhiji grandson Thushar Gandhi led the second Dandi March from Marh 12 – April 17, 2005on the 75th anniversary of Dandi March.

 Gandhiji’s autobiography ‘‘My Experiments with Truth’ was written in 1922 while he was in Jail. It describes his life from 1869 to 1921.

 It was translated into English by Mahadev Desai.

 Leon Tolstoy is considered as the spiritual guru of Gandhiji.

 One of the great dreams of Gandhiji was the establishment of Grama Swaraj. He said ‘‘India livesin villages’’. He started Sewagram Ashram on 30 April 1936.

 Gandhiji said ‘‘Non violence is not one form it is the only form of direct action’’.

 Gandhiji once sarcastically (humorously) called jail ‘‘His Majesty’s Hotel’’.

 ”Generations to come it may scarce believe that such a one as this ever in flesh and blood walked upon this earth”, Einstein said about Gandhiji.

 ‘‘Truth and Non-violence are my Gods’’ Gandhiji

 Untouchability is a crime against God and Mankind Gandhiji.

 ‘‘Swaraj for me means freedom for the meanest of our countrymen’’ – Gandhiji

 ‘‘The light has gone out of our lives and there is darkness everywhere’’ Nehru on the death of Gandhiji.

 ‘‘Non-violence is the law of our species as violence is the law of the brute’’ Gandhiji

 ‘‘Indian culture is neither Hindu, Islam, nor any other wholly. It is a fusion of all’ – Gandhiji

 ‘‘Non Co-operation with evil is as much a duty as co-operation with good’’ – Gandhiji

 ‘‘My only hope lies in prayer and answer to prayer’’ – Gandhiji

Rabindnranath Tagore

 Rabindranath Tagore was born at Calcutta in West Bengal as the son of Maharshi Devendranath Tagore and Sarda Devi. One of Rabindranath’s brothers, Satyendranth Tagore was the first Indian to get selcted for the ICS in 1864.

 In 1901 Tagore established a school at Shant Niketan which finally developed into the world famous University of ViswaBharati in 1921.

 In 1913,Tagore’s Gitanjali was selected for the Nobel prize for Literature.

 In 1912 Tagore Published Jana Gana Mana (Now India’s National Anthem)

 The National anthem is composed in the Raga, ‘Sankarabharanam’

 The English translation of the national anthem is ‘‘The morning song of India’’.

 National anthem was first sung at the Calcutta session of INC (1911)

 India accepted it as our national anthem on 24 January 1950.

 ‘Bharat Vidhata’ was the first name of National anthem.

 National anthem was first published in the book ‘Tatvabodhini’.

 Tagore also wrote the national anthem of Bangladesh ‘ Amar Sonar Bengla’.

 In 1915, Tagore was awarded Knighthood by the British Monarch George V, but he surrendered itin 1919 as a protest against the Jalianwallabagh Massacre.

 Gandhiji called Tagore ‘Gurudev’.

 For Tagore, the great objective of education was ‘to know man and to make oneself known to man’’.

 ‘Jeevan Smriti’ is the autobiography of Tagore.

 ‘Gora’, ‘Raja and Rani’ ‘Rajarishi’, ‘Kabooliwala’ etc are the famous novels of Tagore.

 ‘Purabhi’, ‘The cycle of the spring’ ‘The evening song’ ‘The morning song’ etc are the other fa-
mous works of Tagore.

Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964)

 Jawaharlal Nehru was the son of Motilal Nehru and Swarupa Rani.

 ‘Jawahar’ means Jewel.

 He was born in 1886 November 14.

 Vijayalekshmi Pandit and Krishna Harthising were the sisters of Nehru.

 Nehru became a member of Theosophical Society at the age of 13.

 He went to London in 1905 and joined the Haro Public School, Then Trinity College in Cambridge and finally at the Inner Temple.

 He returned India in 1912 and started practice at the Alahabad High Court.

 Nehru attended the Bankipore Congress Session in 1912.

 He met Gandhi in 1916 at the Lucknow session.

 Nehru became the General Secretary of INC in 1923.

 Nehru became the president of INC for the first time 1929. Poorna Swaraj Resolution was passed at this session (Lahore).

 Nehru became the President of INC for the largest number of times Lahore (1929), Lucknow (1935), Faizpur (1936), New Delhi (1951), Hyderabad (1953) and Kalyan (1954).

 Nehru started a newspaper called ‘National Herald’.

 Nehru headed the interim ministry formed in 1946 September.

 He became the first Prime Minister of India after independence in 1947.

 Nehru has the largest term as India’s Prime Minister.

 Important works of Nehru are ‘Glimpses of World History’,‘The Unity of India’, ‘The Discovery of India’ ‘Bunch of Old letters’.

 ‘‘An Autobiography’’ is the autobiography of Nehru.

 ‘‘………. At the stroke of the mid night hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom……….. these are the words of Nehru.

 Nehru’s main contribution to the evolution of Indias foreign policy was the acceptance of non-

 Non-alignment meant taking independent decisions on international issues with a sense of neu-

 Nehru visited China in 1954, both the countries signed the Panch Sheel.

 ‘I want the cultures of all lands to be brought to my house as freely as possible’ He said

 The expression ‘‘Tryst with destiny’ was first used by Jawaharlal Nehru on the Occasion of India attaining freedom.

 There will be no freedom in this country or in the world so long as a single human being is unfree. Jawaharlal Nehru.

 It is not so much the existence of a nation that counts but what the nation that counts but what the nation does during various periods of existence Nehru.

 Nehru was awarded the Bharat Ratna in 1955.

 Nehru got placed in Indial Postal Stamp in 1964.

 India government began to distribute International Award for International understanding in

1965 U Thant got it for the first time.

 First woman to get the award was Mother Theresa (1969)

 Nehru died on 27 may 1964 at the age of 75.

Famous Statements

 Lord Dufferin : Congres was a microscopic minority.

 Lord Curzon : Congress was ‘tottering to its fall’ and one of his greatest ambition in India was ‘‘to assist it (congress) a peaceful demise’.

 Charles Napier: ‘We have no right to seize Sind, yet we shall do so and a very advantageous, use- ful humane piece of rascality it will be ’’.

 Thomas Roe : ‘‘I know these people are best treated with the sword in one hand and the caducean in the other.’’

 Nabin Chandra Sen : ‘‘The battle of Plassey was followed by a night of eternal gloom for India’’.

 John Sullivan : ‘Our system acts very much like a sponge drawing up all the good things from the banks of the Ganges and Squeezing them down on the banks Thames’

 Tipu Sultan – ‘Better to die like a Soldier, than to live a miserable dependent on the infidels in the list of their pensioned Rajas and nobles.

 Peter the Great of Russia ‘‘Bear in mind that the commerce of India is the commerce of the world’’.

 Cornwallis ‘‘Every native of Hindustan is corrupt’’.

 William Bentinck : ‘‘The misery hardly find a parallel in history of commerce, the bones of the cotton weavers were bleaching the plains of India’’.

 Rani of Jhansi – ‘‘With our own hands we shall

not let our Azadshahi burry’’.

 J.L. Nehru : ‘‘British power became the guardian and upholder of many and evil custom and practice which it other wise condemned.’’

 Cornwallis : ‘‘One third of Bengal has been transformed into a jungle inhabitated only by wildbeats’’

 A.O. Hume – ‘‘A safety valve for the escape of great and growing forces generate by our ac-
tion was urgently needed’’.

 Dada Bhai Naroji : Regarding law and orders ‘‘pray strike on the back but dont strike on the belly’’.

 Dufferin : Branded the national leaders as ‘‘Disloyal Babus’ ‘‘Seditious Brahmins’ and ‘‘Violent Villains’.

 Swami Vivekananda ‘‘For our own motherland a junction of the two great system Hinduism and Islam is the only hope.

 Swami Vivekananda ‘‘We are just don’t touchists Our religion is our kitchen our god is the cooking and our religion is don’t touch me, I am holy. If this goes on for a century, everyone of us will be in a lunatic asylum.

 Aurobindo Ghosh : – ‘‘Political freedom is the life breath of a nation’’.

 Tilak : ‘‘Swaraj is my birth right and I will have it.

 Gandhiji on the eve of Dandi March ‘‘Sedition has become my religion’’.

 Ram Krishna Paramahamsa ‘‘ God is of no use to the hungry belly’

 Swami Vivekananda ‘‘Christianity wins its prosperity by cutting the throats of its fellowmen.


India – Pak Wars

 The major cause of the India – Pak wars was the Kashmir problem.

 On September 1, 1965 Pakistan started attack on the border and invaded Chhamb and Dewa re-

 On September 11, UN Secretary General U-Thant reached to talk on cease fire.

 After the battle, Tashkent agreement was signed under the mediation of Russia.

 Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Sastri and Pakistan President Ayub Khan signed the agree-

 On December 2 The Border Security Force was formed.

 Lal Bahadur Sastri died at Tashkent on 11 January 1966.

 The deplomacy of Sastri was the major source behind India’s victory in the 1965 Indo-Pak war.

 The Second Indo-Pak war was in 1971. After the war Bangladesh became an independent country.

 The agreement signed after the 1971 war was the Simla Agreement.

 Simla Agreement was signed by Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and Pakistan Prime Minister Sulfiker Ali Bhuto in 1972.

 The Kargil war in 1999 was against the terrorist

usurpation into Kashmir from Pakistan.

 Kargil military operation of India was known as

‘Operation Vijay’.

 Former Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee conducted the famous Lahore Bus Journey in 1999


 The Kargil war officially ended on 26 July 1999.

 Boundary line between India and Pakistan is Radcliff line.

 The Lahore declaration was signed between A.B. Vajpayee and Nawaz Sherif.

 Military operation conducted by India on Pakistan 1948 was known as Operation Sojila.

 The operation in which Indian army captured Siachin was known as Operation Meghdoot.

 India and Pakistan signed the Indus River Water Agreement in 1960.

Indo-China War

* Nehru and Chinese Prime Minister Chau Enlai established bilateral friendly relation signing the Panchsheel in 1954.

* But giving asylium to the Dalai Lama of Tibet (1954) provocated China.

 * China attacked India by crossing the Mac Mohan line on September 8, 1962.

 * On October 19 Chinese made a massive attack.

 * On October 26 Government declared Emergency and Defence of India Ordinance.

 * Keeping view of the Chinese aggression the Gold Bond Scheme was declared.

 * In November 1962 the National Defence Council was set up.

 * On Nov. 10, the Chinese declared a Unilateral withdrawal.

 * In 2005 China removed Sikkhim from Chinese map and accepted it Indias part.

 * In 2006, Two countries agreed to open the Nathula pass (Sikkim) after a lapse of four decades

Liberation of Pondicherry and Goa

* Goa was in the hands of Portuguese from 1510 AD onwards.

 * The Liberation Army captured Dadra, Nagarhaveli on 22 July 1954.

 * Goa, Daman and Diu were liberated from the Portuguese in 1964.

 * Pondicherry was under the French Since 1946 there were freedom struggle in Pondicherry.

 * The legal hand over of Pondicherry was in 1962.

 * Malayalam speaking Mahi, Telegu speaking yanam and Tamil speaking Karakkal are the parts of Pondicherry.

*  Pondicherry’s new name is Puthussery.

Nuclear Experiments in India

* Nuclear researches in India were lead by Homi J.Bhaba.

* Council for Scientific Industrial Research Insti-
tute was formed in 1942.

 * Indias first Nuclear Experiment was on 18th May 1974.

 * First Nuclear Experiment of India was code named as ‘‘Buddha Smiles’. It was during the period of Indira Gandhi as Prime Minister.

* It was conducted at the Pokhran Desert in Rajasthan.

 * Uranium was used in the process.

 * It was lead by Dr. H.N. Setna and Dr. Raja Ramanna.

 * Second Nuclear experiment was in 1998.

 * It was code named a ‘Operation Shakti’ or ‘Buddha Smiles again’’.

 * Pokhran is in the Jaisalmer district in Rajasthan.

 * Second experiment was conducted during the term of Atal Bihari Vajpayee.

  Ante Sikh Riots

* In 1984, General K. Sundarji, Commander-in-chief with the army besieged the Golden Temple in Operation Blue Star on June 5.90 soldiers and 712 Sikh extremists including Bhindranwale.

 * The operation was done by 15th Cavalry Regiment of Indian Army.

* As a sequel to the Operation Blue Star. Indira Gandhi was gunned down and killed by her own security
guards, Sub Inspector Beant Singh and Constable Satwant Singh on October 31, morning.

 * In the Ante Sikh riots more than 3000 sikhs died.

 * Congress president Sonia Gandhi officially apologised the Community in 1998.

 * Justice Ranganath Mishra Commission appointed in 1985 submitted the report in 1986.

 * Kapur Mithal Committee (1987) Jane Banerjee Committee Potti Rosha Committee (1990) Jane Agarwal Committee (1990) Dhillan Committee (1985), Narula Committee (1993), Nanavati Commission (2004) etc enquired about the incident.

Demolition of Babri Masjid

* On 6th December 1992, the B.J.P. and VHP  organised a huge rally of over 20,000 volunteers  at the site of Babri Masjid. The BJP Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, Kalyan Singh assured to the Supreme court that   the mosque would be protected. But the mosque was hammered down.

 * The Central Government banned VHP, RSS, BajrangDal and Jamaat -e-Islami. The Kalyan Singh government was dismissed.

 * Babri Masjid was constructed by Babar’s governor Mir Sakhi at Ayodhya (U.P).

 * Narasimha Rao was the Prime Minister when the Babary Masjid was demolished.

 * Ayodhya 6th December, 1992 is a book written by NarasimhaRao,published Posthumously.

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