* The earliest traces of human existence in India so
far discovered is between 4,00,000 and 2,00,000
BC from Sohan valley (now in Pakistan).
* Neolithic settlements in Indian subcontinent are
not older than 4000 BC.
*Wheat and barley were the first cereals grown by
* The name India was derived from the rivername
Sindhu which is also known as Indus.
*India was originally considered as a part of a larger
area called Jambu-dvipa (The continent of Jambu
Indus Valley Civilisation
*The Harappan culture spread over the whole of
Sind, Baluchistan, almost the whole of Punjab,
northern Rajasthan, Kathiawar and Gujarat.
* Harappa the first Indus site, was discovered by
Dayaram Sahni in 1921. It is situated in the prov-
ince of West Punjab, Montgeomery district in Pa-
* Harappa is located on the bank of river Ravi.
* Mohanjedaro was excavated in 1922 by R.D.Banarjee. It is situated in the Larkhana district in
Sind on the right bank of river Indus (Now in
* The Great Granery, the Great Bath a piece of
woven cotton, a beared man in steatite and a
bronze dancing girl are found from Mohanjedaro.
* The most important feature of Harappan
civilisation was town planning and urbanism.
* The word Mohanjedaro in Sindi language means
‘the mount of the dead’.
* Mohanjodaro was believed to have destructed
* Harappans knew the art of growing cereals, wheat
* Banawali is situated in Hariyana.
* Chanhudaro, discovered by N. Gopal Majundar
and Mackey, is situated in Sind on the bank of *Kalibangan, another famous Indus city discov-
ered in 1953 by A Ghosh, is situated in Rajasthan
on the banks of River Ghaggar. Kalibangan stands
* Lothal, first man made port in the world and dock-
yard made of burnt bricks, was discovered in 1953
by S.R. Rao is situated in Gujarat on Bhogava
river near Gulf of Cambay.
* Ropar is the site situated in Punjab on the banks
of river Sutlej. It was discovered in 1953 by YD Sharma.
* Harappan people were the earliest people in the
world to grow cotton and rice.
People cultivated rice at Lothal and Rangpur and barley at Benawali.
Harappan people domesticated oxen, buffaloes,
goats, camel, sheeps, domestic fowls and pigs.
Humped bulls were given special importance.
Horses were unknown to the Harappan people.
Indus people had trade contacts with Persian Gulf
The ancient name given to Indus region was
Indus people used a gold – silver mixture called
They used bronze and copper but iron was un-
known to them.
Indus people were the first to use copper in India.
Harappans used a system of weights and mea-
sures based on 16 and its multiples.
The chief male deity of the Indus people was
Pasupati Mahadeva (Porto Siva).
Their Chief female deity was the Mother Goddess.
They also worshipped fire, pipal trees and Uni-
Harappan script was Pictographic in nature, which
has not been desciphered so far.
Harappan seals were made of Terra – Cotta.
Chess – like game of Harappans was called Sent.
Indus Valley civilisation belongs to the
Chalcolithic period dated between 3000 BC and
1500 BC. It is a Bronze Age civilisation or a proto
The largest number of Harappan sites in post in-
dependent India have been discovered from
Harappan civilisation extended from Jammu in the
North to Narmada in the South and from Makran
coast of Baluchistan in the West to Meerat in the
The Northern most point of Indus valley
civilisation was Gumla in Jammu and the South-
ernmost was Daimbad.
Floods and Earthquakes, change in the course of river Indus, aridity of the area, or drying up of
river Ghaggar, the invasion of Aryans are the sup-
posed reasons for the decline of the civilisation
towards 1500 BC.
Vedic Age is the period of Aryans in India from
1500 – 500 BC.
Most Probable Home of the Aryans is Central
Asia. This theory is of Max Muller.
The word Aryan literally means high born, but it
generally refers to language.
The word ‘Veda’ is derived from the word ‘vid’
which means knowledge.
Vedas are the oldest literary works of mankind.
Vedas are four in number, they are Rig Veda,
Yajurveda, Samaveda and Atharva Veda. Rig veda
Vedas are collectively known as Sruti
Vedangas are collectively known as Smriti
Vedangas are six in number. They are,Shiksha-Phonetic ; Kalpa-Ritual ,Vyakarana-Grammar, Nirukta- Etymology, Chhanda- Metrices and Jyotisha- stronomy
There are 1028 hymns in Rigveda. It is divided
into ten Mandalas (Chapters).
Rig Vedic Hymns sung by priests were called
‘Sruti’ literature belonged to the Sathyayuga,
Smriti belonged to Treatayuga, Puranas belonged
to Dwaparayuga and Thanthra literature belonged
Rigveda starts with the line ‘Agnimele Purohitam’
Famous Gayatri Mantra is contained in the
Rigveda (It is believed to have composed by
Yajurveda deals with sacrifices and rituals.Yajurvedic hymns are meant to be sung by priests
Yajurveda is derived into two: SuklaYajurveda
(White Yajurveda) and Krishna Yajur Veda (Black
Sama Veda deals with Music.
Sama Vedic hymns are meant to be sung by priests
Atharva veda is a collection of spells and incan-
tations. Ayurveda is a part of Atharva Veda, which
deals with medicine.
The saying, ‘‘War begins in the minds of men’’ is
from Atharva Veda.
The 10th Mandala of Rigveda contain the
Purusha Sukta hymn which tells about the ori-
gin of caste system.
Upanishads are 108 in number. Upanishads are
Upanishads are known as the Jnanakantas of
The words ‘Sathyameva Jayate’ have been taken
from ‘Mundaka Upanishad’
Brahdaranya Upanishad was the first to give the
doctrine of Transmigration of Soul and Karma.
Puranas are the part of Smriti literature. They are
18 in number 6 vishnupuranas, 6 sivapuranas and
Bhagvata purana is divided into 18 skandas The
10th skanda mentions about the childhood of Sri
Skanda purana is considered as the largest
Brahmapurana is also known as Adipurana.
Adhyatma Ramayana is included in the
Cattle was the chief measure of wealth of the vedic
Rigvedic tribe was referred to as Jana .
Many clans (vis) formed a tribe.
The basic unit of society was kula or the family
and Kulapa was the head of the family.
‘Visah’ was a cluster of gramas.
Important tribal assemblies of the Rig Vedic pe-
riod were Sabha, Samiti, Vidhata and Gana.
The Aghanya mentioned in many passages of
Rigveda applies to cows.
The Rigvedic religion was primitive animism.
Indra was the greatest God of Aryans and Agni
occupied second position.
Varuna was God of water and Yama was the Lord
Savitri was a solar diety to whom the famous
Gayatri Mantra is attributed to.
Prithvi was Earth Godess.
The battle of ten kings mentioned in the Rig Veda
was fought on the division of water of river Ravi.
It was fought on the banks of River Ravi
Indra was known as Purandara.
The people called Panis, during the Vedic period
were cattle breeders.
The Vedic God in charge of truth and moral order
Indra Played the role of the Warlord. He is also
considered as the rain god.
The two priests who played a major part during
the Rig Vedic period were Vasishta and
Later Vedic Period
The period assigned to Later Vedic Phase is 1000
BC to 600 BC.
Later Vedic people used particular type of pot-
tery called Painted Grey Ware (PGW)
The Later Vedic Aryans were familiar with two
seas, the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean.
Rice became the staple diet of Indian people dur-
ing the Later Vedic Period.
The term ‘Rashtra’ which indicates territory first
appeared in the later vedic period.
Mention of the word ‘Sudras’ – Rigveda (10th Mandala)
Mention of the ‘Gotra’ is found in the
Origin of Kingship is found in Aitareya
‘Soma’ was an intoxicating drink mentioned in
the 9th Mandala of the Rig Veda.
Mention of the word Varna is found in Rigveda.
The fourfold division of the society is found in
the 10th Mandala of the Rigveda.
Mention about the Varnashranadhrama is found
in the Jabla Upanishad.
The Doctrine of Trimurti is found in the
Mention about the origin of Universe is found in
the Rig Veda (10th Mandala).
Purohita Senani and Vrajapati were the impor-
tant functionaries who assisted the king in day-
The officer who enjoyed authority over the pas-
ture land was called Vrajapati.
The king’s power increased during the Later Vedic
First law giver of ancient India was Manu. He
Manusmrithi was translated into English by Wil-
Shyma Shastri translated Arthasastra into En-
Bali was a tax, which the king used to collect from
the people of the Vedic period.
Aryans used iron for the first time India.
Horse, Iron, Sugarcane, Pulses etc reached India
by the coming of Aryans.
The God who occupied supreme position in the
Later Vedic Period was Prajapati.
Rudra was regarded as preserver and protector
of the people.
The most important functionary who assisted the
Vedic king was Purohita.
Manarchy was the normal form of Government in
the vedic period.
Each Tribal republic was headed by Ganapati or
The Vedic Education system revealed through
‘Frog Hymn’ in the Rigveda and ‘Wedding Hymn’
describe the oldest marriage rituals.
Max Mullar was the first person to speak of ‘Ary-
ans’ as a race.
Hinduism has two epics Ramayana and
Mahabharata was written by ‘Vyasa’.Mahabharata
is also known as Jayasamhita, Satasahasri
Samhita and the fifth veda.
Mahabharata has 1,17,000 hymns in it.
Mahabharata is divided into 18 Purvas, an ap-
pendix Harivamsa is considered as 19th Purva.
12th Purva is the largest and 7th is the smallest.
It describes the 18 days battle of Kurukshetra.
Stories of Sakuntalam, Pralayam, Ramcharitam,
Rishysringan, Satyavan Savitri,Nala and
Damayanthi etc are included in the Mahabharata.
Valmiki is the author of Ramayana.
Ramayana has 24000 hymns and is divided into
Seven Skandas (Kandas)
Bhagavatgita is included in the Bhishma Purva of
Mahabharata. It is divided into 18 chapters and
has about 700 hymns.
Vardhamana Mahavira was believed to have born
in 540 BC in Kundala Grama in Vaishali the capital
Six systems of Indian Philosophy
Samkya ………………………….. Sage Kapila
Yoga ………………………………….. Patanjali
Vaisheshika ………………………… Kannada
Nyaya ………………. Akshapada (Gautama)
Vedanta Gaudapada and Shankaracharya.
of Vajji. Now it is in Mussafar district in Bihar.
He belonged to Jnatrika Kshatriya clan.
Mahavira’s family was connected with the royal
family of Magadha.
The word ‘Jaina’ was originated from the word
‘Jina’ which means conqueror.
Jainism speaks about 24 thinthankaras. Mahavira
was the 24th Thirthankara, who is considered as
the founder of Jainism.
Rishabha was the first Thirthankara. Neminath
and Parswanatha were the 22nd and 23rd
Bhagavatapurana, Vishnupurana, Vayupurana,
etc mentions about Rishabhadeva.
Sidhartha, ruler of Nandadynasty which ruled
Kundalapuri, was the father of Vardhmana
Mahavira’s mother was Trissala and Yasodha was
Jameli was the daughter of Mahavira.
Mahavira is also known as ‘Vaishalia’ as he was
born in Vaishali.
He got Kaivalya at the age of 42 under a Sal tree
on the bank of river Rajpalika near Village
At first Mahavira followed the practice of an as-
cetic group called Nirgrandhas , which earlier led
Makhali Gosala was a companion of Mahavira.
Who later founded the Ajivika sect.
Mahavira attained Nirvana at the age of 72 at
Pavapuri near Rajagriha in 468 BC.
Jains observe the day of his nirvana as Dipavali.
Gautama Indrabhuti is considered as his first
Jain sacred texts are called Angas.
Jain texts were written under Bhadrabahu in BC
Jain texts were written in the Prakrit language of
‘Ahimsa Paramo Dharma’ is the sacred hymn of Jainism.
Ahimsa, Satya, Asateya, Aparigriha and
Brahmacharya are the five major principles of Jainism
Brahmacharya is the principle added by Mahavira.
Mahavira taught the three Jewels of Jainism
(Triratna) – Right Faith, Right Knowledge and
The Jains repudiated the authority or infallibility
of the vedas. The Jains rejected the concept of
Universal soul or a supreme power as the creator
and sustainer of the Universe.
Jainism does not condemn the Varna system.
Mahavira believed that all individuals irrespec-
tive of caste can strive for liberation through good
deeds and living.
First Jain council was held at Pataliputra in the
fourth century BC under the leadership of
Second Jain council was held at Vallabhipur in
third Century BC under the leadership of
Aryaskandil Nagarjuna Suri.
Third Jain council was held at Vallabhipur in
Gujarat in 5th Century AD under the leadership
of Devardhi Kshamasramana.
Jainism was divided into two sects Swetambaras
and Digambaras after the first Jain Council.
Digambaras are sky-clad or naked and
swetambaras are clad in white.
Gomateshwara statue is
situated in Sravana
‘Syad Vada’ is a Jain phi-
losophy of Knowledge.
Kharavela of Kalinga
gave patronage to
Mahavir Jayanti and
Rakshabandan are the
festive occassions of
Temple on the Mount Abu in Rajasthan is a fa-
mous centre of Jain worship.
Jain Temple at Sravanabelgola in Hassan district
in Mysore is known as ‘Kasi of the Jains’.
Names of Rishabhadeva and Arishtanemi are also
mentioned in the Rigveda.
Chandragupta Maurya the founder of the
Mauryan Empire, abdicated the throne towards
the end of his life, accepted Jainism reached
Sravanabelgola and died there.
Buddhism originated in the 6th century BC.
Gautama Buddha the founder of Buddhism was
born in Lumbini in Kapilavasthu on the border of
Nepal in 563 BC.
Mahamaya died seven
days after his birth. He
was brought up by his
Gautami, hence he got
the name ‘Gautama’.
First Buddhist nun was
Budha’s birth place is
now known as Binla.
Budhas orginal name was Sidhartha.
Buddha belonged to the Sakhya clan of
His father was Subhodhana.
Buddha’s wife was Yasodhara and his son was
Four sights changed his mind and initiated him to
spiritual life they were death, old age, sadness
He left home at the age of 29 along with his chari-
oteer Channa and favourite horse Kandaka. This
incident is known as Mahanishkramana.
Buddha got enlightenment at Bodha Gaya, on the banks
of Niranjana river in Bihar at the Age of 35.
After enlightenment Buddha came to be known
as ‘thadhagatha’. He is also known as
Buddha made his first sermon after enlightenment
at a deer park at Saranath in Uttar Pradesh. This
incident is known as ‘Dharmachakra
Buddha’s first teacher was Alara Kalama and sec-
ond teacher Udraka Ramaputra.
During his first sermon at Sarnath, Buddha de-
scribed the ‘four noble truths’ and the eight fold
Buddha made his sermons in Pali language and
the early Buddhist texts were also written in Pali
Buddha died at the age of 80 in 483 BC at
Kushinagara in UP. This was known as
Parinirvana. Buddha died by consuming poi-
soned meat or poisoned mushroom.
Last meals of Buddha was served by a blacksmith
His last words were All composite things decay,
Four noble truths of Buddhism are:
life is full of misery, desire is the cause of mis-
ery, killing desires would kill sorrows, Desire
can be killed by following the eight-told path.
The eight fold path of Buddhism are:
Right Belief, Right Thought, Right Speech, Right Living, Right Effort, Righ Recollection, Right Meditation
10. Sheetal Nath
20. Munisuvrata nath
Buddhism does not recognise the existence of
God and Soul (Atman)
Buddha accepted the traditional belief in transmi-
gration of the soul and law of Karma.
The ‘three jewels’of Buddhism are – Buddha,
Dhamma and Sangha.
The first Buddhist council was held in 483 BC at
Sattaparni (Rajagriha) under the presidentship
of Mahakashyapa and under the patronage of king
Ajatasatru of Magadha..
Vinayapitaka and Suddhapitaka were codified at
the first council.
Second Buddhist council was held in 383 BC at
Vaishali under the presidentship of Sabhakami
and under the patronage of king Kalashoka.
At the second Buddhist council Buddhism was
divided into two Staviravadins and
Mahasankikas which later came to be known a
Hinayana and Mahayana respectively.
Third council of Buddhism was held in 250 BC at
Pataliputhra under the presidentship of
Mogaliputta Tissa and under the patronage of
Ashoka the Great.
Abhidhamma Pitika was codified at the third council.
At the third council decision was also taken to
send missionaries to spread Buddhism.
The fourth Buddhist council was held in the first
century AD at Kundalavana in Kashmir under
the President-ship of Vasumithra and Ashvagosha
and under the patronage of Kanishka.
Clear division of Buddhism into Hinayana and
Mahayana tookplace at the fourth council.
Upagupta converted Ashoka to Buddhism.
Ashvagosha was the first biographer of Buddha
who wrote Budhacharitam in Sanskrit.
Vasubandu is known as Second Buddha.
Ashoka is known as the Constantine of Bud-
Ashoka accepted Buddhism after the battle of
Kalinga in BC 261.
Buddhist worshipping centre is known as Pagoda.
Viharas are the Buddhist monastries.
Vajrayana was a sect of Buddhism which believed
in achieving salvation through Mantras and
‘Jataka stories’ describe the stories related to
the birth of Buddha. They are 500 in number.
Holy book of Buddhism is Tripitika- Vinayapitika,
Suddhapitika and Abhidhamapitika are collec-
tively known as Tripitika.
Bimbisara of Magadha was a contemporary of
Kanishka who worked to spread Buddhism like
Ashoka is known a Second Ashoka.
Ashoka sent his son and daughter, Mahendra
and Sanghamitra to SriLanka to spread Bud-
Sri Buddha is known as the ‘Light of Asia’ He
was named as such by Edvin Arnold.
Edvin Arnold’s ‘Light of Asia’ was translated into
Malayalam by Nalappad Narayanamenon.
Hinayanism is wide spread in Sri Lanka.
The Bodhi tree at Gaya was cut down by Sasanka,
a Bengal ruler.
The chief Buddhist monastery was at Nalanda,
which was under the patronage of Pala kings.
Previous Buddhas are known as ‘Bodhisatvas’.
Milandapanho a book of Nagasena describes how
Greek king Menandar accepted Buddhism.
First five centuries of the Christian Era are com-
monly known as Sangham Age.
5 SYMBOLS OF BUDDHA
Birth ………………………………… Lotus and Bull
Renunciation …………………………………. Horse
Enlightenment ………………………….. Bodhitree
First Sermon ……………………. Dharma Chakra
Nirvana (Death) ………………………. Foot prints
Sangham was an Assembly of literature held at
References to the Sangham Age can be found in
the inscriptions of Ashoka, and Kharavela of
Kalinga and in the Indica of Megastenese.
The literature of the Sangham Age was written
mostly in the form of Poetry.
In the Sangham Age, the most common form of
government was hereditary monarchy. The vil-
lage was the fundamental unit of administration.
Small village Assemblies during the Sangham Age
were known as Arai.
Tradition refers to three sangham lasting for 9,900
Language of the Sangham literature was Tamil
People of the Sangham Age mainly worshiped
The greatest work of the Tamil literature of the
Sangham Age is Tholkappium written by
Tholkappium is considered as the earliest sur-
viving Tamil literary work. It is a book on Tamil
The Capital of the Pandyas was at Madhurai.
Uraiyur was the capital of Cholas, known for cot-
Vanchi was the capital of Cheras.
Silappadigaram, Manimegalai and
Jeevakachintamani are the three epics of
Korkai was the main seaport of the Pandyas.
Megastanese described Pandya Kingdom as
‘Pearl’ as it was ruled by women.
Kaveripumpatnam was the main sea port of the
Silappatigaram as written by Ilango Adikal. It
describes the love story of Kovalan and Kannaki
Nedujezhian is the Pandyan king mentioned in
Satanar wrote ‘Manimekhalai’ which is also an
epic and tells about the story of the daughter of
Kannaki and Kovalan.
Manimekhalai gives reference about Buddhism.
II and XIII rock edicts of Ashoka mention about
the South Indian kingdoms.
Karikala most prominent among early Cholas is
known as the master of seven notes of music.
‘Bharatam’ was a Tamil version of Mahabharata
sung by Perundevanar.
‘Manimekhalai’ is looked upon as the Tamil Od-
Thirukkural is known as Tamil Bible compiled
by Thiruvalluvar. His statue is seen near
Vivekanandappara in Kanyakumari.
The greatest of the Chera rulers was
Senguttuvanchera also known as ‘Red Chera’.He
built a temple for Kannaki.
The famous Chera port Muziris was a great cen-
tre of Indo-Roman Trade.
The largest single tax collected during the Sangha
period was the land tax called Karai.
The founder of later Cholas was Rajaraja I The
most important ruler of this dynasty was Rajendra
Rajendra Chola is also known as ‘Gagaikonda
Chola’ He later named his capital as ‘Gangaikonda
RajaRaja I built ‘Brihadeswara temple’ at Tanjore.
Cholas were well known for their naval supremacy
and efficient village administration.
The Utharameroor inscription tells about the lo-
cal self government under the cholas.
Thirukkural of Thiruvalluvar is the Tamil work
which is known also as the fifth Veda.
Jivaka Chintamani the third epic of the Tamil was
written by Tirukkadevar.
Vikram Era …………………………………. 58 BC
Saka Era …………………………………… 78 AD
Gupta Era ……………………………….. 320 AD
Hijra Era …………………………………. 622 AD
Kollam Era ………………………………. 825 AD
Illahi Era ………………………………… 1583 AD
Roman king built a temple of Augustus at
Literary Activities in Ancient India
Ashtadhyayi by Panini (5th C.BC) the earliest
grammar book also called Bhagavati Sutra.
Mahabhashya was written by Patanjali.
Manusmriti was a law book composed between
200 BC and 200AD.
Arthashastra by Kautilya deals with statecrafts
is a major source of Mauryan administration.
Indica by ‘Megastenes’ is a source of Mauryan
society and administration.
Chandsutra was written by Pingala.
Buddhacharita by Aswaghosha is the earliest
biography of Buddha. It was written in Pali lan-
Raghuvamsa by Kalidasa is an epic based on
Naishad Charita by Sri Harsha contains story of
Nala and Damayanti.
Natyashastra by Bharatamuni is the earliest
known work in Sanskrit.
Malavikagnimithram, Vikramorvashiyan and
Abhinjana Syakuntalam are dramas written by
Ratnavali, Naganandaand Priyadarshika are dra-
mas written by Harshavardhana.
Meghadutam by Kalidasa
Srinagarashataka, Nitishataka and
Vairagyasataka were written by Bhartrihari.
Gita Govinda was written by Jayadeva.
Harshacharita – Written by Banabhatta
Vikramamangadeva charita – written by Bilhana.
Dasakumaracharitam …………………… Dandin
Vasavadatta ……………………………….. Subandu
Brihat Kathamanjari …………….. Kshemendra
Kathasaritsagara ……………………… Somadeva
Panchathantra ……………………. Vishnusharma
Hitopadesha ……………………… Narayan Pandit
Kamasutra and Arya Manjushree ….. Vatsyayana
Pavandhoot …………………………………… Dhoyi
Swapna Vasavadatta ……………………….. Bhasa
Matavilasa Prahasana ……. Mahendravarman I
Si-yu-ki ………………………………. Hiuen Tsang
Fo-kuoki ……………………………………. Fa-hien
Panchasidhantika …………………… Varahamihir
Suryasidhantika and Aryabhatiyam….Aryabhatta
Nitisara ………………………………… Kamandaka
Charak Samhita …………………………. Charaka
Hastayurveda …………………………….. Palkapya
Mitakshara …………………………… Vigneswara
Sidhanta Siromani ……………. Bhaskaracharya
Nighantu ……………………………… Dhanvantari
Mudrarakshasa ……………………. Vishakadatta
Prabhanda Chintamani ………….. Meruthunga
Geography of India ………………………. Ptolemy
Brihat Kathakosh ………………………. Harisena
Mrichakatika …………………………….. Sudraka
Prithviraj Vijaya ………………………… Jayanak
Nala Vemba …………………………….. Pugalendi
In the 6th century BC there originated 16
Mahajanapadas in North India
Four prominent royal dynasties stand out promi-
nently out of these Janapadas. They were
Haryankas of Magadha, the Ikshvakus of Kosala,
the Pauravas of Vatsa and the Pradyotas of Avanti.
Haryanka is the name of a new dynasty founded
in Magadha by Bimbisara.
Bimbisara founded the dynasty by defeating the
Bimbisara was a contemporary of Buddha.
Magadha became a supreme power in North In-
dia under Ajatasatru. So Ajatasatru is consid-
ered as the founder of Magadhan Supremacy.
Pataliputra and Rajagriha were the capitals of
Magadha falls in the Patna region of Bihar.
Haryankas were overthrown by Sisunaga and he
founded the Sisunaga dynasty there.
Kalasoka the son and successor of Sisunaga was
succeeded by Mahapadma Nanda and he
founded the Nanda dynasty.
Ajatasatru’s successor Udayin was the founder
of the city of Pataliputra.
The Achaemenian king of Persia, Darius (522 –
486 BC) captured some territories the east of
Sindhu in 518 BC.
The Persian domination over Indian territory
lasted upto 330 BC.
Xerxes was the persian ruler who enlisted Indi-
ans in his army.
The Kharoshti script was brought to India by
Alexander was born in 356 BC as the son of King
Philip II of Mascedonia.
Epirus or Olympias was Alexanders mother.
Aristotle was Alexander’s teacher.
He became the king in 336 BC
He defeated the Persian ruler Darius III.
Alexander founded the city of Alexandria in
In 326 BC Alexander defeated Porus
(Purushothama) the ruler of Punjab and Captured
Taxila through the battle of Hydaspes on the
banks of river Jhelum.
Ambhi the ruler of Taxila invited Alexander to In-
Alexander died of Malaria at the age of 33 in 323
BC while he was in Babylon.
Alexander was cremated at Alexandria.
Alexander was known as Shehansha in Persia and
Sikhandar-I-Asam in Indo-Pak region.
The Last general of Alexander in India was
Alexander’s first General in India was Selucus
Alexander IV succeeded Alexander as the
Alexander’s teacher Aristotle is considered as the
father of Politics, Biology, Taxonomy and the Sci-
ence of Logic.
Mauryan Empire (321-185 BC)
Major sources for the study of Mauryan Empire
are the Arthasastra of Kautilya and Indika of
Chandragupta Maurya was the founder of
Details about his early life are not available
He is believed to have belonged to Moriya Clan,
hence got the name Maurya.
It is also said that his mother was Mura a women
of lower birth hence got the name Maurya.
In some texts he is referred to as Vrishala and
He conspired with Chanakya (Kautilya or
Vishnugupta) the minister of Nanda to overthrew
the last Nanda ruler DhanaNanda.
Chandragupta Maurya ascended the throne in
He fought against Selucus in 305 BC. Selucus
surrendered before him and sent an ambassador,
Megasthenese to the court of Chandragupta
Chandragupta’s Governor Pushygupta con-
structed the famous Sudarshana lake.
ChandraGupta Maurya was converted to Jainism,
abdicated the throne in favour of his son
Bindusara, passed his last days at
Sravanabelagola (Near Mysore) where he died in
Chandragupa Maurya was responsible for the po-
litical unification of North India for the first time.
Bindusara was a follower of Ajivika sect.
Bindusara was known as Amitragatha.
Ashoka ascended the throne in 273BC and ruled
upto 232 BC.
He was known as ‘Devanampriya priyadarsi the
beautiful one who was the beloved of Gods.
Maski and Gujara Edicts of Ashoka gave the
name Devanampriya Priyadarsi.
Buddhist tradition says Ashoka killed 99 of his
brothers to capture the throne.
Ashoka was the first king in Indian history who
had left his records engraved on stones.
Ashokan inscriptions were written in Kharoshti
and Brahmi scripts.
Ashoka fought the Kalinga war in 261 BC Kalinga
is in modern Orissa.
Ashokan inscriptions were deciphered by James
After the battle of Kalinga Ashoka became a Bud-
dhist, being shocked by the horrors of the war.
Ashoka was initiated to Buddhism by Upagupta
or Nigrodha a disciple of Buddha.
For the propagation of Buddhism Ashoka started
the institution of Dharmamahamatras.
The IV Major Rock Edict of Ashoka tells about
the practice of Dharma
The Major Rock Edict XII of Ahoka deals with
the conquest of Kalinga.
Ashoka held the third Buddhist council at his
capital Pataliputra in 250BC under the
presidentship of Moggaliputa Tissa.
He sent his son and daughter to Sri Lanka for the
spread of Buddhism (Mahendra and Sanghamitra)
Ashoka spread Buddhism to SriLanka and Nepal.
He is known as the Constantine of Buddhism.
In his Kalinga Edict he mentions ‘‘All man are as
Ceylones ruler Devanmpriya Tissa was Ashoka’s
first convert to Buddhism.
Ashoka ruled for 40 years and died in 232 BC.
The emblem of the Indian Republic has been
adopted from the four lion capital of one of
Ashokas pillars which is located in Saranath.
Rock-cut architecture in India made a beginning
during Ashoka’s reign.
Brihadratha the last Mauryan ruler was killed by
Pushyamitra Sunga who founded the Sunga Dy-
nasty in 185 BC.
Megasthenese the first foreign traveller to India
mentions about the existence of seven castes in
India during the Mauryan period.
Stanika in Mauryan administration refers to tax
Post Mauryan Period
Sunga Dynasty (185-71 BC)
Sunga Dynasty was founded by Pushyamitra
Sunga the commander-in-chief of last Mauryan
Kalidasa’s drama Malavikagnimitram is about the
love story of Pushyamitra’s son Agnimitra and
Last ling of sunga dynasty was Devabhuti.
Kanva Dynasty (72 BC – 27 BC)
Kanva dynasty was founded by Vasudeva Kanva
in 72 BC after defeating the last Sunga ruler
This dynasty ruled for a period of 45 years.
Vasudeva, Bhumimitra, Narayana and Susuman
were the rulers of Kanva dynasty.
Cheta (Cheti) Dynasty of Kalinga
The Cheti Dynasty was believed to have founded
by Maha Meghavahana
The Hatigumbha inscription of Kharavela, of the
Important Mauryan Officers
Samaharta ……………. Collector of Revenue
Sannidata ………………….. Head of Treasury
Dandapala ……………………… Head of Police
Durga Pala ………………. Head of Royal Fort
Pradeshikas …. Head of District Administration
Prashasti ……………………..Head of Prisons
Kalinga ruler gives details about the Chedis of
Kharavela was a follower of Jainism.
Satavahanas (235 BC – 100BC)
Satavahanas were the most powerful ruling dy-
nasty after the Mauryas.
Satavahanas were also known as Andhras.
Satavahanas were the Indian rulers who prefixed
their mother’s name along with their names.
Most important Satavahana ruler was
Satavahanas were Brahmanas.
Nagarjuna Konda and Amaravati in
Andhrapradesh became important seats of Bud-
dhist culture under the Satavahanas.
The two common structures of Satavahanas were
the temple called Chaitya and the monastery called
Satavahanas mostly issued lead coins.
The official language of the Satavahanas was
First to invade India were the Greeks who were
The most famous Indo-Greek ruler was Menander
with his Capital at Sakala in Punjab (Modern
The Indo-Greeks were the first to issue gold coins
The introduction of Hellenistic art features into
India were also the contribution of Indo-Greek rule.
Menander was converted into a Buddhist by Bud-
dhist monk Nagasena (Nagarjuna)
Indo-Greeks were the first to issue coins bearing
the figure of kings.
Demitrius, the king of Bacteria invaded India
about 190BC. He is considered as Second
Alexander (But the Indian ruler who accepted the
name second Alexander (Sikandar-i-sani) wasexampundit.in
Indo-Greeks were the first to introduce military
governorship in India.
The Parthians (19 – 45 AD)
Parthians also known as Pahalavas were Iranian
Gondophernes was the greatest of the Parthian
St. Thomas is said to have came to India for the
propagation of Christianity during the period of
The Sakas (90 BC – Ist AD)
Sakas were also known as Scythians.
The first Saka king in India was Maues or Moga
who established Saka power in Gandhara.
The most famous of the Saka rulers in Western
India was Rudra Daman I. His achievements are
highlighted in his Junagarh inscription written in
Junagarh inscription of Rudradaman was the
first inscription in Sanskrit.
Ujjayini was the capital of Rudradaman.
Kushans are also known as Yuch-chis or
Kushans came to India from North Central Asia.
First great Kushana king was Kujala Kadphises
or Kadphises I.
The most famous
Kushana ruler was
He became the ruler in 78
AD and started Saka Era
in 78 AD.
The Capital of Kanishka
was Peshawar or
Kanishka convened the fourth Buddhist council
Scholars like, Parsva, Vasumitra, Ashvaghosha,
Charaka and Nagarjuna were the courtiers of
The Gandhara School of Art received royal pa-
tronage under the Kushans.
Kanishka patronised Mahayana form of Bud-
Kanishka is righty called the ‘Second Ashoka’
Kanishka was the first king who inscribed the
image of Lord Buddha on his coins.
Kanishka started the Saka era in 78 AD. The first
month of Saka era is Chaithra and the last month
Vasudeva was the last great king of Kushana
Kushana school of art is also referred to as the
Gupta Empire (320 – 540 AD)
Gupta Empire was founded by Sri Gupta.
Ghatotkacha was the second ruler.
Chandra Gupta I was the real founder of the Gupta
Empire. He came to the throne in 320 AD.
He was the first ruler to adopt the title
He laid the foundation of Gupta Era on 26 Febru-
ary 320 AD.
Samudra Gupta succeeded Chandragupta I in 335
The Allahabad Pillar inscription composed by
Harisena contains information about
Allahabad Pillar inscription is also known as
Samudra Gupta is also known as ‘Linchchavi
Dauhitra’’. (son of the daughter Kumaradevi of
Samudra Gupta is described as ‘Indian Napoleon’
by V.A. Smith.
Samudra Gupta composed ‘‘Vahukabita’’ and had
the title ‘‘Kaviraja’’.
Sanskrit was the court language of the Guptas.
India became ‘‘Greater India’’ under Samudra
Samudra Gupta was an accomplished Veena
Chandragupta II the greatest of Gupta rulers was
popularly known as Vikramaditya.
Historically Important Places
Ayodhya Birth place of Sri Rama (UP)
Amber Palace Rajasthan
Aghakhan Palace Pune (Maharashtra)
(Gandhi and Kasturba were
kept in prison here)
Kedarnath Holy place of Hindus
Amarnath Pilgrim centre (Kashmir)
Elephanta caves Near Mumbai
Ellora Caves Maharashtra – 34 cavetemples
Rajgir Jain Temple in Bihar
Golden Temple Amritsar – Harmandir Sahib of
Golgumbus Bijapur (Karnataka)
Tanjore Capital of Cholas –
Charminar Hyderabad (Monument of
Konark Temple Orissa (Sun Temple)
Qutab Minar Delhi
Khajuraho Near Bhopal (M.P.) 80 temples
Mahabalipuram Centre of Pallava architecture
Kurukshetra Battle of Mahabarata (in
TajMahal Agra (UP) Built by Shah Jahan
Sanchi Buddhist Stupa (Madhya
Haridwar Holy Place of Hindus
(Hindu, Buddha – Jaina)
Tomb of Muhammed Adil Shah
He adopted the title ‘Sakari’ after his victory over
Rudradaman II of Gujarat.
Fa hein, the Chinese traveller, visited India dur-
ing his period.
The exploits of Chandragupta II are glorified in
an iron pillar inscription fixed near Qutub Minar.
Chandragupta II adopted the title Vikramaditya
as a mark of his victory over the Sakakshatraps.
‘Nine gems’ or ‘Navratnas’ was a famous Scho-
lastic Assembly in the court of Chandragupta II.
The members in the Ninegems were – Kalidasa,
Kadakarbhara, Kshapanaka, Varahmihira,
Vararuchi, Vethalabhatta, Dhanvantari,
Chandragupta II was succeeded by his son
Skandagupta Vikramaditya was the last great
ruler of Gupta Empire.
Skandagupta Vikramaditya was the only hero in
Asia and Europe who defeated the Hunas in their
Vishnu Gupta was the last ruler who died in 570
Mantriparishad assisted the king in administra-
Most important Industry of the Gupta period was
Period of the Gupta is compared to ‘Periclean
Age of Greece’, ‘Augustan Age of Rome’ and
‘Elzabethan Age of England’.
Period of the Guptas is considered as the Golden
Age in the history of India.
Earlier Guptas had their capital at Prayag in
Allahabad, later it was shifted to Ujjain by
The most important officers in the Gupta empire
The royal seal of the Guptas bore the emblem of
Aryabhatta was the first to treat Mathematics as
a separate subject. He wrote Aryabhattiyam. He exampundit.in
belonged to the Gupta period. Aryabhatta was
the first to use Decimal System.
Panchsidhanta, Brihat Jataka, Laghu Jataka and
Brihat Samhita are the works of Varahamihira.
The best specimen of the Gupta paintings are seen
at Ajanta caves and the Bhaga caves.
The Gupta period marked the beginning of Indian
Guptas issued large number of gold coins in In-
Guptas largely patronised art and architecture.
Guptas patronised the Gandhara school of art,
Madhura School of Art and the Andhra School
The Fresco paintings in the Ajanta caves are ex-
amples of the art of the Guptas.
The chief source of income was land revenue.
The position of women declined during the Gupta
A renowned physician of
the Gupta period was
Nalanda and Taxila were
the two universities of this
Kalidasa is generally
Shakespeare’ and the
‘Prince of Indian Poets’.
Books on Sciences
Chandra Vyakaran …………… Chandragomin
Amar Kosh ………………………… Amar Singh
Niti Shastra …………………………. Kamandak
Kamasutra ………………………….. Vatsya yana
Ashtanga Hridaya ………………….Vaghbhatta
Hastyaurveda …………………………. Pulkapya
Sankhyakarika …………………. Iswarkrishna
Patanjali founded ‘Yoga Shastra’, a school of
Hindu philosophy during this period.
The Huns were a nomadic and barberic race of
They were defeated by Skanda Gupta.
In the last quarter of the 5th century AD, the
Hunas established an independent kingdom in
Toramana and Mihirakula were important Huna
In 510 AD Bhanu Gupta defeated Toramana.
Narasimha Gupta defeated Mihirakula.
The Hunas gave rise to the Kshatriya Rajaputs.
Sialkot was Mihirakula’s capital.
The Maitrakas of Valabhi
They were of Iranian origin, they ruled Gujarat.
Valabhi was their Capital.
Siladitya I (606 – 612 AD) was the first indepen-
dent king of Maithrakas.
The Vakatakas (250-500 AD)
The Vakatakas established their power in Deccan.
Their capital was Vidarbha.
The founder of the dynasty was Vindhyasakthi.
Vakatakas were Brahmins.
Vakatakas were later defeated by the Chalukyas
Harsha Vardhana (606 – 647AD)
The last Hindu Emperor of North India was
Harshavardhana (Last Hindu king of Delhi was
Harshavardhana belonged to the Pushyabhuti
Dynasty, also known as Vardhana Dynasty.
The Pushyabhuti dynasty was founded by
Harsha came to power in 606 AD (Harsha Era)exampundit.in
He made Kanauj his new capital from Taneswar.
Original name of Harsha was Siladitya.
Chinese traveller Hieun Tsang visited India dur-
ing his reign.
Harsha summoned a religious assembly at Prayag.
Hieun Tsang said Indians were ‘‘Truthful people
although quick tempered’’
Harsha’s biography ‘Harsha Charita’ was writ-
ten by his court poet Banabhatta. He also wrote
Harsha Vardhana was a poet and dramatist.
Ratnavali, Priyadarshika and Nagananda are the
works of Harshavardhana.
Harsha Vardhana was defeated by the Chalukyan
king Pulikeshin II in AD 634.
Harshavardhanas empire was the last Buddhist
empire in India.
After Harsha, the Karkotas of Kashmir established
Mahendravarman I and Pulikeshin II were the
contemporaries of Harshavardhana.
Matanga, Divakar, Jayasena and Bhartrihari
were the famous scholars in the court of
Harsha founded the Harsha Era in 606 AD.
Chalukyas of Badami
In 535 Pulikeshin I founded a small kingdom with
the Capital at Vatapipura (Modern Badami)
He was succeeded by Kirtivarman and
Pulikeshin II was the most famous ruler of the
The greatest achievement of Pulikeshin II was
the defeat he inflicted on Harshavardhana.
The Pallava king Narasimhavarman captured
Vatapi and adopted the title ‘Vatapikonda’.
Pulikeshin II defated the Pallavas and captured
Kanchi. He also defeated Cheras, Cholas and
Kirtivarman, the last ruler of this dynasty was
defeated by the Rashtrakutas and the Chalukyanrule came to an end in 757 AD.
The magnificient temples of Belur and Halebid
and the Elephanta caves were constructed during
the Chalukyan period.
From the Chronological point of view Chalukyas
can be divided into four
The Chalukyas of Vatapi (535 – 642 AD)
The later Chalukyas of Vatapi (655 – 753 AD)
The Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi (615 – 1076)
The Later Western Chalukyas of Kalyani (973-
Simhavishnu was the founder of the Pallava dy-
Narasimhavarman , a Pallava ruler, defeated
Pulikeshin II and adopted the title Vatapikonda.
Narasimhavarman I was called Mahamalla which
meants a wrestler.
The book Mattavilasa Prahasana was written by
The Ratha temples at Mahabalipuram (Seven Pa-
godas) were created by Narasimhavarman I.
Dandin the author of Dasakumaracharitam, lived
in the court of Narasimhavarman II.
Narasimhavarman II was the most important ruler
of the Pallava dynasty.
He founded Kailasanatha Temple and the Shore
Temple at Mahabalipuram.exampundit.in
Rashtrakuta dynasty was founded by
Dandidurga in 753 AD. With the capital at
Manyakhed or Malkhed.
Rashtrakuta ruler Amoghavarsha I wrote
‘Kavirajamarga’ which is the earliest Kannada
work on poetics. He also wrote Prasnottarmalika.
The Kailasanath Temple at Ellora was founded
by the Rashtrakuta ruler Krishna I.
Krishna III (940 -968) was the last great ruler of
The Rashtrakuta power was overthrown by Thiala
The Pratiharas are also called Gurjara – Pratiharas
– belonging to the 36 clans of Rajputs.
The dynasty was founded by Nagabhatta I (725-
Nagabhatta II made Kanauj his capital.
Pratihara ruler Mihir Bhoja adopted the title
Yashpal was the last ruler of this dynasty.
Sulthan Muhammed of Ghazni entred Kanauj dur-
ing the period of the Pratiharas.
The Pala dynasty was founded by Gopala in 750 AD.
Famous Odandapuri University was founded by
The Vikramsila and Sompur Universities were
founded by the Pala king Dharmapala.
The Pala power was destroyed by Vijayasena who
founded the Sena dynasty.
The Sena dynasty was founded by Vijayasena
towards to end of 11th century. (1093)
Senas had a capital in Vikrampura and another
About the middle of 13th century the senas were
overthrown by the Deva dynasty.
Jayadeva, the author of Gitagovinda was patron-
ized by Sena ruler Lakshmana Sena.
The four Agnikula Rajputs were the Pratiharas,
Chau-hans the Solankis and Paramaras.
Chauhans had their capital at Ajmer and Delhi.
Ajayaraya established the city of Ajayameru or
The most prominent ruler was Prithviraj III (1177-
1192). He defeated Muhammed of Ghore in the
First Battle of Tarain (1191). But Ghore defeated
and killed him in the Second Battle of Tarain (1192).
Prithviraj Chauhan III was the last Hindu ruler
Prithvi Raj Rao is the historical Kavya written by
The Chandelas of Bundelkhand
The Chandela dynasty was founded by
Yasovarman with Mahobas as the Capital
The Khajuraho temples are the best examples of
the Chandela art.
Vijayalaya was the founder of the Chola empire.
He was a feudatory of the Pallavas of Kanchi.
Raja Raja I (985 – 1014) adopted the titles of
Jaykonda, Marthanda Chola, Mamudichola etc.
He built the Brihadeshwara temple at Tanjavur.
which is called the RajaRajeswara temple.
Rajendra I led an expedition to North India, de-
feated the Pala ruler Mahipala I and adtoped the
title, Gangaikondachola and established a new
Capital, Gangai Konda Cholapuram.
Cholas maintained a well established local – self
government system. Ur, Sabha or Mahasabha –
and Nagaram were the assemblies for local ad-
The Uttaramerur inscription of Dantivarman Pallava
gives details about the local self government.exampundit.in
Eminent Personalities of Ancient
Alexander : he was the ruler of Macedonia in
Greece. He attacked India in 326 BC and captured
upto river Bias.
Ajatasatru : Son of Bimbisara. He established the
city of Pataliputra.
Arien : Greek historian who wrote about
Alexander’s Indian invasion.
Ashwaghosh : Buddhist monk who initiated
Kaniskha to Buddhism wrote Buddha charita,
Sutralankar and Sandaranand.
AmarSimha : Sanskrit scholar in the court of
Chandragupta who wrote Amarakosha.
Aryabhatta : He analysed the reasons for Solar
and Lunar eclipses and declared that the Earth is
round. Wrote Aryabhattiyam.
Bimbisar : Founded the Magadhan Empire or
Haryanka dynasty. He was the first influential king
of ancient India.
Banabhatta : Court poet of Harshavardhana and
author of Harsha Charita and Kadambari.
Charak : He was an Ayurvedic expert wrote
Charak-Samhita and established the Aitereya
branch of Ayurvedic medicines.
Amoghavarsha : He was a famous Rashtrakuta
Temples and Builders
Kailas Temple at Ellora ……………………
Chunnakesava Temple, Belur ….
Rathas at Mahabilipuram …
Tanjavur …RajaRaja Chola
Mahabalipuram … Narasimha VarmanII
Lingaraja Temple, Bhavaneswar ……………………
……………………………….. Eastern Gangarubs
Karjuraho Temples ……………………….Chandellas
Rajarajeshwara Temple, Tanjavur ………Raja raja I
Meenakshi Temple at Madhurai .. Nayaka Rulers
Shiva Temple at Tanjavur ……….. Raja Raja Chola
Dhanananda : He was a powerful king of Magadha. Alexander did not go forward to in-
vade Magadha only after hearing his reputation.
Darius I : The ruler of Iran (Persia) who invaded India in 6th century BC.
Gautami Putra Shatakarni : He was the most famous Satavahana king in 2nd Century.
Harisena : He was the writer of Pryaga Prashasti or Allahabad Pillar Inscription.
Kharavel : Ruler of Kalinga in I century AD. The Famous Hathigumbha inscription belonged to
Kanishka : (I century AD) : Most powerful Kushan king. Started Shaka Era. Organised fourth
Buddhist council at Kundalvan near Kashmir.
Karikala : Chola ruler who founded the city of Puhar (Kaveri patanam) in I century BC.
Kautilya : also known as Vishnugupta or Chanakya. He wrote Arthasasthra, which is com-
pared to ‘The prince’ of Machiavelli.
Kalidas : Famous Sanskrit poet who wrote, Raghuvamsa, Kumara Sambhavam, Abhigyana
Shakuntalam, Vikramorvashiyam and Malavikagnimitram. He also wrote Meghadootam and Ritusamharam.
Kamban : A Tamil poet of 11th century who wrote Ramayan in Tamil.
Mihir Bhoja : Famous Prathihara ruler of 9th century.
Kalhana – Famous Kashmiri poet and historian.He wrote Raja Tarangini.
Marco Polo : Venitian Traveller to India in 13th century.
Menander : He came to India as a foreign aggressor in II Century BC. MilindaPanho, a book writ-
ten by Nagasena, is about him.
Nagarjuna : Famous Buddhist monk. He popounded the philosophy known as Madhyamika.
Makkali Gosala : Philosopher of 6th Century BC. He was the founder of Ajivika sect
Mihirkula : Huna conqueror defeated by Yashodharma.
Skand Gupt : Last mighty Gupta ruler.
Shushrut : He was a doctor of Ayurvedic medicine. He started the Dhanwantri branch and was an expert in Plastic Surgery.
Pulikeshin II. Most powerful king of Chalukyas of Vatapi who defeated Harshavardhana in North
and Mahendravarman of South.
Pushya Mitra sunga : He killed the last Mauryan ruler and laid the foundation of Sunga dynasty in
Pliny : He was a Roman historian who wrote the Natural History. He wrote about the Mauryas of
Panini : Sanskrit scholar specially of Grammar. He wrote Ashtadyayi.
Varahamihira : He was famous astronomer who wrote Brihat Samhita.
Sankaracharya : He was born in Kaladi in Kerala. He propagated Advaita Philosophy.
Selected Questions from
Ancient Indian History
The source of Swastika symbol Indus Valley
Who is considered as the father of Indian archaeoloy
Meter scale has been discovered from ………Harappa
Weapon never used by the Indus people Sword
What was the major industry in Chanhudaro?
The word ‘Sindhan’ used by the Indus people denoted Cotton
Evidence of fractional burial has been excavated from Harappa
The word ‘godhume’ used in the vedic period denote Wheat
‘Yava’ denoted Barley
Term used to denote rice in the vedic text Vrihi
Vedic term sita denoted Ploughed field
Which veda mentions about wheel Rigveda
Vedi terms ‘Urvara’ or ‘kshetra’ denoted Cultivated field
The famous frog hymn in Rig Veda throws light to Vedic education
Who was considered as the god of the vedas? Varuna
Rigvedic term ‘Duhitri’ denoted Milker of cows
Method used to calculate the number of cows in the Vedic period Ashtakarni
Part of which veda has prose part Yajur Veda
Who spread Aryan religion in South India Agasthya
Vedic term ‘Aghanya’ denotes Cows
The term ‘Bharata’ and ‘Bharatavarsha’ were first used in Rig Veda
Upanishad which mentions the four Ashramas of Vedic period Jabala Upanishad
Largest number of hymns in Rigveda a are in praise of Indra
First town in the vedic period to use burned bricks Kausambi
First reference about lending money for interest can be found in Satpatha Brahmana
Rigvedic paintings have been discovered from Bhagvanpura. It is in which state ‘ Hariyana
Upanishad which mentions about police system Brihadaranyaka Upanishads
God who was considered as God of Gods Varuna
Community which was considered as untouchables by the Buddhists. Chandalas
The language used by the Jains to spread their religion Prakrit
Who is considered as the St.John of Buddhism Ananda
Who is considered as Devil by the Buddhists Mara
Three daughters of ‘Mara’ lust, emotion and desire
The ruler who persecuted Buddhists Pushyamitrasunga
Major philosophic school of BhagvatismVishishtadvaita
Earliest reference about Srikrishna can be found in Chandoghya Upanishad
Hindu God who found place in Greek literature Sri Krishna
Jain Thirthankara, who was related to Sri Krishna Rishabhadeva (Ist Thirthankara)
Tamil god of the Sangham age for War and Victory Kottavai
Saint who founded the Saivism Lakulisa
Tamil kingdom of the Sangham Age which sent an ambassador to the court of Roman Emperor Augusts Pandyas
First Sangham was founded by Saint Agasthya
Famous poetess of the Sangham period Avvaiyar
Greeco-Roman traders who visited South India during the Sangham period were denoted with the term Yavanas
Sangham work which describes about Buddhism Manimekhalai
The word used by Ashoka to denote Buddha Bhagavati
Ashokan inscriptions were desciphered by James prince in the year 1837
Indo-Greek ruler who had his boundaries upto Pataliputra Menander
Yuchi ruler who introduced gold coins for the first time Vima Kadphesus
Edict which mentions about the relation between India and China Nagarjunakonda
Arab Conquest of Sindh
During the Khaliphate of Omar, Arab forces made fertile attempts to get Bombay
Arabs captured Sindh in 712 AD.
The Arab conquest of Sindh was led by Muhammed Bin Kassim.
Muhammed Bin Khasim was the nephew of AlHajaj, the governor of the Arab province of Basra.
Dahir, a Brahmin was the ruler of Punjab at that time. He was killed by Kassim.
The Arabs lost control over Sindh in 779 AD.
Arab conquest of Sindh resulted in the spread of Islam to North India.
But Islam was first introduced in India by Malik Ibn Dinar in Kerala in 644 AD.
Ghazni in Afghanistan was ruled by a Turkish family called Gamini of Ghaznavid dynasty.
Muhammed Ghazni was the first Turkish conqueror of North India.
Muhammad Ghazni’s father was Subu ktigin.
He attacked India only for want of wealth.
He attacked India seventeen times between 1000 and 1027 AD. He made all the raids in the guise of Jihad.
First Invasion was in 1001 AD.
He defeated Jaipal and Anandpal of Shahi dynasty in 1001 and 1009 respectively.
The most important raid of Muhammed was the Somanath expedition. It was in 1025. He completely distroyed the temple. Somanath Temple was on the sea coast of Gujarat.
Muhammed Ghazni died in 30th April 1030.
Later his son Masud attacked India and caputred Kashmir.
The famous Persian poet Firdausi who wrote ‘Shahnama’ (The Book of Kings) lived in his court.
Alberuni, an Arab Historian, who wrote Tarikh-ul-Hind (Reality of Hindustan), accompanied Muhammed Ghazni to India.
Al-Firdausi is known as ‘Indian Homer’, ‘Persian Homer’, or ‘The Immortal Homer of the East’.
Muhammed of Ghore attacked India betwen 1175 and 1206 AD.
Muhammed Ghori made his first expedition to India and captured multan in 1175 AD.
In the First Battle Tarain in 1191 (near Taneswar) Muhammed Ghori was defeated by the Rajput
forces under Prithviraj Chauhan III.
In the Second Battle of Tarain (1192 AD) Muhammed Ghori assisted by Qutub -ud-din Aibek a slave, defeated Prithviraj Chauhan III and killed him.
In 1193 Muhamed Ghori attacked Jaichand, father in law of Prithviraj . III at Kanauj, Jaichand was defeated.
Muhammed Ghori returned from India by intrusting his territories in India in the hands of Qutub-
After the death of Ghori in 1206 Aibek founded the Slave Dynasty.
Muhammed Ghoris Indian invasion resulted in the foundation of Islamic rule in India.
The five dynasties which founded subsequently after the Turkish invasion were collectively known
as Delhi sulthanate. They are:
Slave Dynasty ………………… 1206 – 1290
Khilji Dynasty ……………….. 1290 – 1320
Tughlaq Dynasty …………….. 1320 – 1412
Sayyid Dynasty ………………. 1414 – 1451
Lodi Dynasty………………….. 1451 – 1526
Slave Dynasty (1206 – 1290)
Slave Dynasty was also called Ilbari Dynasty,
Yamini Dynasty or Mamluk Dynasty.
Qutub-ud-din Aibak was a slave of Muhammed
Ghori and he founded the Slave Dynasty in 1206
Aibak was the first Muslim ruler of India.
The capital of Qutub-ud-din Aibak was at Lahore
He was known as ‘Lakh Baksh’ or ‘giver of lakhs’
or ‘giver of favours’ for his magnanimity.
Hasan Nizami was a famous historian in the court
of the Aibak.
Qutub-ud-din Aibak started the construction of
Qutub Minar in 1199 in Delhi in memory of the
Sufi saint Quaja Qutub – ud-din Bhaktiar Kaki.
Its construction was completed by Ithumish. It is
a five storied building.
Qutub-ud-din Aibak died 1210 by falling from
horseback while playing Polo.
After the death of Qutubuddin, Aram Shah as-
cended the throne but he was
deposed by Ilthumish and
crowned himself the Sulthan.
During the period of Ilthumish
(1210-1236) Chengizkhan, the
Mongole conqueror attacked
India (1221). Chengizkhan
Important Court Scholars
Kalidasa ………. Chandragupta II (Vikramaditya)
Banabhatta ………………………. Harshavardhana
Alberuni ………………………. Muhammed Ghazni
Firdausi ……………………….. Muhammad Ghazni
Amir Khusru ……………………… Alauddin Khilji
Todarmal ……………………………………….. Akbar
Tansen ………………………………………….. Akbar
Birbal ……………………………………………. Akbar
Mansingh ……………………………………… Akbar
Abul Fazal ……………………………………… Akbar
Ashva Ghosha …………………………… Kanishka
Amara Simha ……………………. Chandragupta II
Chand Bardai …………………. Prithviraj Chauhan
Revikirti………………………………… Pulikeshin II
Dhanwantari …………………….. Chandragupta II
Harisen …………………………….. Samudra Gupta
Tenali Rama …………………… Krishnadeva Raya
Ilthumish is considered as the real founder of
Ilthumish is considered as the real founder of
Ilthumish was the first Sulthan of Delhi to get
recognition of the Khalif of Bagdad.
Ilthumish was also the first Sulthan to make Delhi
He issued a purely Arabic coinage of Silver and
was the first to do so.
Coins introdued by Ilthumish, ‘Silver Thanka’
and ‘Copper Jital’ were the two basic coins of
the Sulthanate period.
He organised the ‘Chalisa’ or the famous Turk-
ish forty to help him in the administration.
Iltumish completed the construction of Qutub
The revenue system of the Sulthanate ‘Iqta sys-
tem’, was introduced by Ilthumish.
Ilthumish was succeeded by his son Ruknuddin
Firoz Shah. But he was later executed and Razia
became the sulthan (daughter of Ilthumish)
Sulthana Raziya, the only women ruler of, the
Sultanate came to power in 1236 and reigned till
Sulthana Raizya rejected the Pardah, she adorned
the male dress and held open courts.
In October 14, 1240 both Razia and Altunia who
earlier raised arms against Razia but later joined
with her were, beheaded at Kaithal.
After Raizya Behran Shah (1240 – 42) Allaud-din-
Masudshah (1242 – 46) and Naziruddin
Muhammad (1246 – 1266) ruled and Balban, the
founder of the second Ilban dynasty, became the
Ghiasuddin Balban ‘a slave water carreer, hunts-
man, noble, statesman became the Sulthan of Delhi
in 1266 and continued in power till 1686 AD.
Balban is considered as the founder of Second
Balban described himself as ‘shadow of God’ or
the ‘viceregent of God on Earth’ (Zil-i-illahi)
Balban because of his autocratic rule is consid-
ered as a ‘typical oriental despot’.
The Chalisa or forty established by Ilthumish was
abolished by Balban.
His policies are considered to be ‘Draconian’.
He started the Iranian system of Sajda and Piabos.
He was a patron of men of letters and showed
special favour to the poet Amir Khusrau.
After Balban’s death in 1286, Kayqubad (1287 -90)
became the Sulthan.
Madhavacharya of the Dwaita Philosophy got help
Balban’s Tomb is situated in Delhi. It was con-
structed by Balban himself.
Kayqubad was the last Slave Sulthan. (Kayumars
who ruled for a term of three months was actually
the last Slave Sulthan. He was killed by Jalaluddin
Khilji) and founded the Khilji Dynasty.
Khilji Dynasty (1290 -1320)
Khilji dynasty was founded by Malik Firoz in
1290 and assumed the title Jalaluddin Khilji (1290-
In 1292 the Mongols under Abdulla accepted de-
feat from Jalaluddin Khilji.
Alauddin Khilji, the nephew
of Jalaluddin Khilji, killed him
after his victory on Devagiri
Alauddin Khilji’s early name
was Ali Gurushap.
He became the Sulthan in
1296 AD and ruled till 1316
Alauddin Khilji was the first Muslim ruler to at-
In 1303 Alauddin Khilji attacked Chittor, the capi-
tal of Mewar, to marry Padmini the wife of Chittor
king Ratna Singh.
But Padmini and other Rajput women committed
Juhar (Juhar is a mass suicide by Jumping into
fire, committed by Rajput women to escape from
being polluted by others)
Padmavat is a historical kavya about Padmini epi-
sode written by Malik Muhammed Jayasi.
Malik Muhammed Jayasi was the court poet of
Alauddin Khilji was the first Muslim ruler to at-tack South India.
Malik Kafur was Alauddin Khilji’s Commander
who attacked South India.
Alauddin Khilji was the most famous ruler of the
Alauddin was the Sulthan of Delhi who banned
the use of liquor.
Alauddin had a dream of a World Conquest so he
assumed the title ‘Sikhandar-i-sani’ or Second
Demitrius a Bactrian ruler is popularly known as
Alauddin abolished the Zamindari System and
imposed tax on cattle.
He was the first muslim ruler of Delhi to introduce
measurement of land for tax assessment.
His market regulations were to get goods at con-
trolled price to the people of Delhi.
Alauddin Khilji was the first Sulthan of Delhi who
separated religion from politics.
He was also the first to proclaim ‘‘I am the
Alauddin constructed Alai Darwaza the gate way
of Qutub Minar.
He built the city of Siri, the second of the seven
cities of Delhi, near Qutub Minar.
The first marriage between a muslim ruler and a
Hindu princess was between Alauddin and Ka-
mala Devi, the widow of the ruler of Gujarat.
Alauddin Khilji was killed by his commander
Malik Kafur by poisoning.
Amir Khusru was the court poet of Alauddin
Amir Khusru is known as the ‘Parrot of India’
He is considered as the father of Urdu language
and the inventor of Sitar.
Laila Majnu and Tughlaq Nama are the famous
works of Amir Khusru.
Alauddin khilji was the first Sulthan to maintain a
permanent standing army.
Alauddin Khilji was responsible for the introduc-
tion of postal system in medieval India.
Mubarak shah khilji was the last ruler of the
Khilji dynasty came to an end when the Mubarak
shah Khilji was killed by Khusrau Khan.
Some historians consider Khusrau Khan as the
last Khilji Sulthan.
Tughlaq Dynasty (1320 – 1412)
Tughlaq Dynasty was founded by Ghiazuddin
Tughlaq. His real name was Ghazi Malik.
Ghiasuddin Tughlaq founded the dynasty after
killing Khuzru Khan in 1320.
MAURYAN EMPIRE………….. 322 BC – 185 BC
Chandragupta Maurya ……….. BC 322 – 297 BC
Bindusara ………………………… 297 BC – 274 BC
Ashoka …………………………… 274 BC – 237 BC
KUSHANA EMPIRE ………….. 20 AD – 225 AD
Kanishka …………………………. 78 AD – 120 AD
Gupta Empire ……………………320 AD – 606 AD
Chandragupta I ………………..320 AD – 330 AD
Samudra Gupta …………………330 AD – 380 AD
Chandra Gupta II ………………380 AD – 413 AD
VARDHANA DYNASTY ……580 AD – 647 AD
Harsha Vardhana ………………606 AD – 647 AD
SLAVE DYNASTY ……….. 1206 AD – 1290 AD
Qutubuddin Aibak ……………… 1206 – 1210 AD
Ilthumish ………………………….. 1210 – 1236 AD
Raziya Sulthana …………………. 1236 – 1240 AD
Balban ……………………………… 1266 – 1286 AD
KHILJI DYNASTY ……………. 1290 – 1320 AD
Alauddin Khilji ………………….. 1296 – 1316 AD
TUGHLAQ DYNASTY ………. 1320 – 1412 AD
Muhammed Bin Tughlaq……… 1325 – 1351 AD
LODHI DYNASTY ……………. 1451 – 1526 AD
Ibrahim Lodi ………………………. 1517 -1526 AD
MUGHAL EMPIRE …… 1526 – 1540, 1555-1857
Babar ………………………………. 1526 – 1530 AD
Humayun ……………..1530-1540, 1555-1556 AD
Akbar ………………………………. 1556 – 1605 AD
Jahangir …………………………… 1605 – 1627 AD
Shahjahan ………………………….. 1628-1658 AD
Aurangazeb………………………. 1658 – 1707 AD
Bahadurshah II ………………….. 1837 – 1857 AD
Ghiazuddin died by the collapse of a pavilion.
He built the Tughlaqabad Fort in Delhi the third
city of Delhi to the east of Qutub complex.
Ghiassudhin Tughlaq was the first Sulthan to start
GhiassuddinTughlaq was succeeded by his son
Jauna Khan, popularly known as Muhammed Bin
Muhammed Bin Tughlaq is considered as the
single most responsible person for the decline of
Muhammed Bin Tughlaq was known as a mix-
ture of opposites, wisest fool, Pagal padushah,
unfortunate idealogue and the predecessor of
Akbar in intellectual and religious matters.
Ibn Batuta called him ‘‘an illstared idealist’’.
He shifted his capital from Delhi to Devagiri
(Daulatabad) in 1327.
In 1330 he introduced token currency of bronze
Moroccan Traveller Ibn Batuta visited India dur-
ing his period.
Edward Thanas described him as ‘prince of
Muhammed Bin Tughlaq was succeeded by his
elderly cousin, Firoz Shah Tughlaq.
Firoz Shah Tughlaq was the first Sulthan of Delhi
to impose Jaziya. It was a religious tax for the
freedom of worship. He imposed it only upon Brah-
He built the city of Firozbad in Delhi. The Firoz
shah Kotla was also built by him. The gate way of
Firozshah Kottla is Khooni Darwaza, or blood
stained gate. It was constructed by Shersha Suri.
He transplanted two Ashokan Pillars to Firozabad.
He is the author of Fatuhat -i- Firozshahi
After Firozshah Tughlaq Muhammed Shah
Tughlaq or Naziruddin Muhammed came to the
It was during the period of his reign that Timurexampundit.in
the Lame or Tamerlain a Turkish conqueror of
Tartar tribe from Samarkhand attacked India in
Timur appointed Khizr Khan, the governor of
Multan his authority in India.
Sayyid Dynasty (1414 – 1451)
Sayyid Dynasty was founded by Khizr Khan in
Last Sayyid Sulthan was Alauddin Alamshah or
Shah Alam I. He was killed by Bahalol Lodhi in
Lodhi Dynasty (1451-1526)
Lodhi dynasty was founded by Bahlol Lodhi in
1451. The dynasty lasted upto 1526.
Lodhi dynasty was the first Afghan dynasty or
first Pathan dynasty in India.
Sikhandar Lodhi, who ruled from 1489 to 1517
shifted the capital from Delhi to Agra.
Sikhandar Lodhi is considered as the Maker of
Last Lodhi Sulthan or last Delhi Sulthan was
Ibrahim Lodhi. Rana Sangram Singh of Mewar
defeated him. His brother Daulat Khan Lodhi in-
vited Babar to India to defeat Ibrahim Lodhi in
Babar defeated Ibrahim Lodhi in the First Battle
of Panipat in 1526 April 21.
The title Sulthan was started by the Turkish rul-
ers. Muhammed Ghazni was the first to assume
the title Sulthan.
The official language of the Delhi Sulthanate was
Bahmani and Vijayanagara Kingdoms
The decline of the Sulthanate of Delhi gave birth
to two mighty states in South India the Bahmani
Kingdom of Gulbaraga and the Vijayanagara Em-
The Bahmanis were Muslim rulers, while the rul-
ers of the Vijayanagar were Hindus.
The Bahmani kingdom was founded by Zafar
Khan (Hassan) who took the title of AlauddinBahman Shah. He selected Gulbaraga as its capi-
tal and renamed it Ahsanabad.
There were total eighteen Sulthans and they ruled
from 1347 to 1527.
Muhammed Gawan was the famous minister of
The last prince of the Bahmani Kingdom was
By 1527, the Bahmani kingdom was split up into
five independent principalities.
The Adil Shahis of Bijapur -founder – Yusuf
Adilshah (1489 – 90)
The Nizam Shahis of Ahamadnagar – founder –
Malik Ahmad (1499)
The Imadshahis of Berar – founder -Fateh Ulla
The Qutubshahi kingdom of Golconda – founder
– Qutabshah (1512)
The Baridshahis of Bidar – founder – Amir Ali
Vijaya Nagara Empire
The founders of Vijaya Nagar Empire were
Harihara and Bukka Rai, the revenue officers of
the Kakatiya ruler Pratap Rudra Deva II of
They founded the dynasty in 1336 with the capi-
tal as Vijaya Nagara on the banks of Tungbhadra
river witht the help of Saint Vidyaranya.
Vijayanagara kingdom lasted for 230 years and
produced four dynasties.
Sangama (1336 – 1485)
Saluva – (1485 – 1505)
Tuluva (1505 – 1565) and
Aravidu (1565 – 1672)
Krishna Deva Raya (1509 –
1529) belonged to the
Tuluva dynasty. The Ital-
ian traveller Nicolocont
visited his court.
Krishnadeva Rayar is
known as ‘Andhra Bhoja’
He wrote Ushaparinayam and Amuktamalyada
Allasani Peddanna, a Telugu poet was a courtier
of Krishna Deva Raya. He is considered as the
‘‘Andra Kavita Pitamaha’’ the Grand Father of
‘Ashtadiggajas’ was the famous Scholastic As-
sembly in the court of Krishna Deva Raya.
Vijayanagar Empire was visited by many foreign
Nicolo Conti – Venitian traveller, visited during
the reign of Devaraya I.
Abdur Razzak : Ambassador of Sulthan
ShahRukh to the court of Devaraya II.
Damingos Paes : He visited Krishna Devaraya’s
Ferona Nuniz : A Portuguese who visited during
Achyuta Raya’s reign.
Durate Barbosa : A portuguese who visited
Krishnadeva Raya’s court.
Athenasius Nikitin (1415) : He was a Russian,
who visited during Deva Raya I’s period He wrote,
‘Voyage to India’.
The Mughal Empire
The Mughals were originally Turks.
They belonged to the Chaghtai branch of the
Period of the Mughal empire is known as Second
Classical Age. First Classical Age is the period
Mughal Empire is also known as Timurid Empire
because of its relation to Amir Timur.
Mughal Emperors are 20 in number. They ruled
India from 1526 to 1857. Only six are considered
great They are:
Zahiruddin Muhammed Babur (1526 – 1530)
Naziruddin Mirza Muhammed Humayun (1530 –
40 & 1555 – 1556)
Jalaluddin Muhammed Akbar – (1556 – 1605)
Nuruddin Muhammed Jahangir (1605 – 1627)
Shahabuddin Muhammed Shah Jahan (1628 –
Muhiyuddin Muhammed Aurangazeb Alamgir
(1658 – 1707)
Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire, was
the fifth descendant of Timur
on Father’s side and the four-
teenth descendant of
Chengizkhan on mothers side.
Babur was born in Farghana in
Turkey on 14 Feb. 1483 as the
som of Umer Sheik Mirza ad
Babur’s father Umershiek Mirza was the grand
son of Amir Timur and the ruler of Farghana.
Babur became the ruler of Samarkhand at the Age
He captured Kabul in 1504.
Then Babur attacked India 5 times for want of
Babur’s first Attack of India was in 1519 Bhera
was the first place captured by Babur.
In 1524 Daulatkhan, Ibrahim Lodhi’s brother in-
vited Babur to India.
On 21 April 1526 Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi,
the last Lodhi Sulthan in the First Battle of
On 16 March 1527 he defeated Rana Sangha of
Mewar, in the Battle of Khanwa.
The Rajputs in 1528 under Medini Raj of Malwa
fought against Babur in the Battle of Chanderi,
but were defeated.
In 1529 the Afghans under Muhammed Lodhi
fought against Babur in the Battle of Ghaghra
but were defeated.
In 1530 December 26, Babur died and was cre-
mated at Kabul.
Babur was the first to use Artillery in India.
His memoirs or autobiography ‘Tuzuk-i-Baburi
or Baburnamah was written in Turkish language,
Babur said ‘I dont like India and Indians’.
Babur was the first Mughal ruler to keep in hand
the Kohinur Diamond.
Babur was a contemporary of Krishnadeva Raya
of Vijaya Nagara Empire.
Humayun was born in 1507 in Kabul as the son of
Babur and Mahim Sulthana.
He became the Mughal Em-
peror on 29 December 1530 at
the age of 23.
He divided the empire among
his brothers – Askari, Hindal
The word ‘Humayun’ means
‘fortunate’ But Human is con-
sidered as the most unfortunate Mughal ruler.
Human was an accomplished mathematician and
In 1539 by the Battle of Chausa, Humayun was
defeated for the first time by Shershah Suri.
In the next year (1540) Shershah completely de-
feated Humayun in the battle of Kanauj and
founded the Sur dynasty.
After the lapse of 15 years Humayun re-captured
the Empire by defeating the last Sur ruler
Sikhandar Shah Suri by the battle of Sirhindh in
After the restoration Humayun ruled for only six
The period from 1540 to 1555 is known as the
period of temporary eclipse of the Mughal.
Humayun died by an accidental fall from the
straicase of his Library ‘Shermandal’ at the
Puranakwila in Delhi on 24 January 1556.
The Purnakwila was constructed by Humayun but
its construction was completed by Shershah.
Humayun’s biography Humayun Namah was writ-
ten by Humayun’s sister Gulbadan Begum. The
language used to write this biography was a mix-
ture of Turkish and Persian.
In 1533 Humayun built the city of Dinpana (world
refuge) in Delhi.
Humayun’s tomb is situated in Delhi (first build-
ing in India having double domes)
Humayun tomb is known as predecessor of
Tajmahal, because Taj was modelled after this,
also known as a dormitory of the house of Timur.
Mirak Mirza Ghias is its architect.
Akbar the Great
Father – Humayun
Mother – Hamida Bhanu Begum
Step mother – Magam Anaga
Guardian – Bairam Khan
First Guardian – Munim Khan
Akbar was born at Amarkot in
Sindh in 23 Nov. 1542.
He came to the throne on February 14, 1556 at the
age of 14 at Kalanur.
Hemu the Hindu Prime Minister of Muhammed
Adilshah of Bihar occupied Agra and accepted
the title Maharaja Vikramaditya.
Akbar killed Hemu in the Second Battle of Paniput
in 1556 November 2.
Akbar became an independent ruler at the age of
18 in 1560, after dismissing Bairamkhan.
Later he married Bairam Khans widow Salima
In 1561 he defeated the musician Sulthan of
Malwa – Baz Bahadur.
In 1562 Akbar married Joda Bhai, the daughter of
Raja Bharmal of Amber
In 1564, he abolished the religious tax Jaziya.
Jaziya was impossed for the first time by Firozshah
In 1572 he captured Gujarat and in memory of that
he built a new capital city Fathepur sikri (city of
Victory) near Agra.
The early name of Fathepur Sikri was city of Sikri.
Buland Darwaza is the gate way of Fathepur Sikri,
built by Akbar.
In 1575 Akbar constructed a prayer house in
Fathepur Sikri known as Ibadatkhana.
In 1579 he issued the Infallibility Decree by which
he made himself the supreme head in religious
In 1580 the first Jesuit missionaries arrived at the
court of Akbar.
In 1585 Ralph Fitch the first English man to reach
India, reached Akbar’s court.
Ralph Fitch is known as pioneer English man or
torch bearer Englishman.
In 1582 Akbar founded a new religion for univer-
sal peace and monotheism known as ‘Din Ilahi’
means Divine Faith.
In 1583 he started a new Calendar called Ilahi
In 1576 Akbar defeated Maharana Pratap of
Mewar in the battle of Haldighat. Haldighat is a
mountain pass in the Aravally hills in Rajasthan.
The Portuguese introduced tobacco for the first
time in India in the court of Akbar in 1604.
Akbar was the Mughal Emperor when the En-
glish East India Company was being founded in
1600 December 31.
Akbar died in 1605.
His tomb is situated at Sikhandra near Agra.
Akbar was an illiterate person, but he was a pa-
tron of men of eminence. He maintained a Scho-
lastic Assembly in his court. They included the
Abul Fazal : Akbar’s court historian who wrote
Akbar’s biographical works Ain-i-Akbari and
Abul Faizi : Persian poet and brother of Abul
Fazal. He translated Mahabharata into Persian in
name ‘Razam Namah’ and Bhaskaracharya’s
mathematical work Leelavati into Persian.
Mian Tansen : His original name was Ram Thanu
Pande. He was the court Musician of Akbar. He
composed a Raga, Rajdarbari in honour of Akbar.
Birbal : His real name was Mahesh Das. He is the
court jester of Akbar.
Raja Todarmal : RajaTodarmal was Akbar’s fi-
nance or revenue minister. He formulated Akbar’s
revenue system Zabti and Dashala systems. Raja
Todermal also translated Bhagavatapurana into
Maharaja Mansing : Akbar’s military commander.
Badauni : a historian who translated Ramayana
into Persian – Tarjuma -1-Ramayan.
Tulasidas : Hindi poet who
Akbar’s military system was
known as Mansabdari system,
which included Ranks from 10
Akbar was also responsible
for the introduction Persian as
the official language of
He divided the Mughal Empire into 12 Subahs
(provinces) for the administrative conveniences.
Akbar was also the first ruler to organise Hajj.
Pilgrimage at the government expense. The Port
Cambay in Gujarat is known as the ‘Gate way to
Mecca from Mughal India’.
Akbar was an accomplished Sitar player.
Mughal – Rajput friendly relation began during
the period of Akbar.
Early name of Jahangir was Salim. Akbar called
him Sheika Baba.
Jahangir came to the throne in
Jahangir was the son of Akbar
He married Mehrunnisa, an
Afghan widow in 1611 Later he
gave her the titles, Noor Mahal
(light of the palace) Noor Jahan (light of the world)
and Padusha Begum.
In 1606 Jahangir executed fifth Sikh Guru Guru
Arjun Dev, because he helped Jahangir’s son
Prince Khusru to rebel against him.
In 1609, Jahangir received William Hawkins, an
envoy of King James I of England, who reached
India to obtain trade concession.
In 1615 Sir Thomas Roe reached the court of
Jahangir as the first ambassador of James I of
England in the court of Jahangir. As a result of
his efforts first English factory was established
at Surat in Gujarat.
Period of Jahangir is considered as the Golden
Age of Mughal Painting. Jahangir himself was a
painter. Ustad Mansur and Abul Hassan were fa-
mous painters in the court of Jahangir.
Jahangir built Shalimar and Nishant Gardens in
Jahangir suspended a chain of Justice known as
Zndiri Adal infront of his court.
Anarkali was Jahangair’s lover. Mughal-i-Asam
directed by K. Asif is a famous film which tells
the love story of Jahangir and Anarkali.
Jahangir wrote his autobiography Tuzukh -i-
Jahangiri in Persian language.
Jahangir died in 1627 and was cremated at
Shahdhara in Lahore.
Shah Jahan was born on 5th January 1592 at
His mother was Jagat Gosain
and his childhood name was
He married Arjumand Benu
Begum, daughter of Asaf Khan,
brother of Noor Jahan. She later
came to be known as Mumtaz
Mahal which means beloved of the Palace.
Shahjahan destroyed the Portuguese settlements
Shah Jahan’s period is considered as the Golden
Age of Mughal Architecture and Shah Jahan is
known as the Prince of Builders.
In 1631 he started the construction of Tajmahal
in memory of his wife and completed in 1653. It is
situated on the banks of Yamuna river in Uttar
Pradesh. Utad Iza a Turkish/ Persian was its ar-
chitect. British administrator Furgurson called it
‘a love in marble’. Now Sulphur Dioxide, emitted
by oil refinaries in Madhura after mixing with mois-
ture in the atmosphere forms Sulphuric Acid and
damages the marble of Tajmahal.
In 1638 Shah Jahan built his new capital Shah
Jahanabad in Delhi and shifted the capital from
Agra to there.
In 1639 he started the construction of Red fort in
Delhi on the model of Agrafort built by Akbar. Its
construction was completed in 1648. The Diwan-
i-Am, Diwan-i-Khas and the Moti Masjid are situ-
ated inside the Red fort. The Mothi Masjid in
Agra was constructed by ShahJahan.
The INA Trial in 1945 was conducted at the Red
The Gateway of Redfort is the Lahore Gate. It is
here at the Lahore Gate that the Prime Minister of
India hoists the National Flag and addresses the
nation on the independence day.
In 1656 ShahJahan constructed the Juma Masjid
in Delhi. It is the biggest masjid in India. First
masjid in India was constructed at Kodungallur
in Kerala (Cheraman Palli) in 644 AD by Malik Ibn
Shah Jahan’s period is known as the Golden Age
of Mughal Empire.
The Portuguese introduced European painting in
India during the reign of Shah Jahan
In 1658 Shah Jahan was imprisoned by his son
Aurangazeb and he died in 1666, after eight years.
His daughter Jahan Ara was also kept in prison
along with him at the Agra fort.
Shah Jahan’s son Dhara Shukoe was a famous
scholar. He translated Bhagavat Gita and Sixty
Upanishads into Persian. He also wrote a book
titled Mujm-ul-Behrain (Mingling of the Oceans)
He also translated Atharva Veda into Persian.
ShahJahan was a famous Lyricist. He wrote Lyr-
ics in Hindi.
The famous Peacock Throne was built by Shah
Jahan. It was abducted from here by Nadirsha in
1739 during his Indian invasion (Persian con-
queror). Now it is kept at the London Tower Mu-
French travellers Bernier and Tavernier and Ital-
ian traveller Manucci visited India during
Aurangazeb imprisoned his father and made him-
self the Padushah in 1658. But his actual corona-
tion was conducted in 1659.
Alamgir was the name
adopted by Aurangazeb when
he became the Padusha.
Aurangazeb is known as
‘Zinda Pir’ or living saint be-
cause of his simple life.
He banned music and dance.
He ousted all the artists from
his court. At the same time he was an accom-
plished Veena player.
Aurangazeb was the last great Mughal Emperor.
In 1675 he executed 9th Sikh Guru Guru Tej
Behadur because of his reluctance to accept Is-
Teg Behadur was executed at the Chandni Chauk.
In 1679 Aurangzeb constructed the tomb of his
only wife Rubiad Daurani at Aurangabad in
Maharashtra. It is known as Bibi ka Makabara. It
is otherwise known as Mini Tajmahal as it was
the blind imitation of Tajmahal. In the same year
he reimpossed Jasya upon all the non Muslims,
which was earlier abolished by Akbar.
Aurangazeb called Shivaji a ‘mountain rat’ and
gave him the title Raja because of his guerilla tac-
In 1660 he entrusted Shaisthakhan to defeat
Later in 1665 the treaty of Purandar was signed
between Maharaja Jaisingh of Amber and Shivaji
Jaisingh was deputed by Aurangazeb.
The Mughal Rajput relation became worse dur-
ing the period of Aurangazeb.
Aurangazeb was the only Mughal Emperor who
was not a drunkard.
Aurangazeb is considered as religiously fanatic.
He was also a temple breaker. He persecuted the
Hindus and imposed prohibition against the free
exercise of Holi and Divali.
Aurangazeb died in 1707 February 20,at
Ahmednagar. Aurangazeb’s tomb is situated at
Daulatabad in Maharashtra.
Bahadurshah I came to the throne after the death
of Aurangazeb. His real name was Muassam.
In 1739 Nadirshah Quli the Persian conqueror
attacked India during the period of the Mughal
Emperor Muhammed Shah or Rustan Khan
(1719-1748) and took away ShahJahan’s famous
Peacock Throne and Kohinoor Diamond.
Ahmedshah’s (1748 -1754) period saw the mighty
invasion of Ahmed Shah Abdali of Afghanistan.
Akbar Shah II (1806 – 1837) conferred the title
‘‘Raja’’ upon Ram Mohan Roy.
Bahadurshah II (837-1862) was
the last Mughal emperor. On
17th May 1857 Bahadurshah II
was declared the independent
Emperor of India by the Muti-
neers. He was surrendered to
LtW.S.R. Hodson at Humayun’s
Tomb in Delhi. In 1859 he was
deported to Rangoon in December where he ex-
pired on Nov. 7, 1862. The Tomb of Bahadurshah
II is in Pwin Manah, the capital of Myanmar.
Bahadurshah II was also a famous Urdu Poet.
Bahadurshah II was also known as Bahadurshah
Zafar Zafar means gifted poet.
Shershah’s original name was Farid.
He was born in Hissar Firosa.
His father was Hassan Khan
His family came to India from Afghanistan.
He entered the service of Baharkhan Lohani of
Behar from whom received the title of Sherkhan,
for killing a lion single handed.
Later he became a member of the Mughal court of
In 1539 by the battle of Chausa, Sherkhan de-
feated Humayun for the first time and assumed
the name Shershah.
Later in 1540 he completely defeated Humayun in
in the battle of Kanauj and founded the Sur dy-
While directing the operations of his artillery at
Kalanjar against the ruler of Bundelkhand Raja
Kirat Singh, Shershah was seriously wounded by
a sudden fire from his own artillery and died on
May 22, 1545.
Shershah constructed the Grand Trunk Road from
Sohargaon to Attock (Calcutta to Amritsar)
He introduced the National Highway concept for
the first time in India.
Now the Grand Trunk Road is known as Shershah
Suri Marg. Its part from Delhi to Amritsar is
known as National Highway -1.
Grand Trunk Road is also known a ‘Long Walk’.
He was the first ruler to introduce Silver Rupiya
(one rupiya was equal to 64 dams) and gold coin
He built the Purana Qila in Delhi (its Construc-
tion was started by Humayun) and his own
Mousoleum (Tomb) at Sasaram in Bihar.
He also constructed the Khooni Darwaza (blood
stained gate) the gate way of Firozshah Kotla in
Hindi poet Malik Muhammed Jayasi completed
his Padmavat, during his reign.
His Revenue system was excellent and hence
Akbar’s administrative reforms were modelled af-
ter him. He is regarded as the forerunner of Akbar.
Shershah was succeeded by his son Islam Shah.
The last Sur ruler was Sikkandar Shah Sur. Who
was defeated by Humayun in 1555 by the battle
The first great leader of the Marathas was
The Marathas became prominent in the later half
of the 17th century.
Shivaji belonged to the Bhonsle clan of the
Shaji Bhonsle and Jiga Bai were the Parents of
He was born in 1627 February
19 at the fort of Shivner near
His father was a military com-
mander under the Nizam Shahi
rulers of Ahmedanagar and
later of Bijapur.
Shivaji’s tutor was Dadaji Kondadev.
Shivaji received the help of Malavi tribe to cap-
ture the territories of Bijapur Sulthan.
Torna was the first place captured by Shivaji in
Shivaji came to conflict with the Mughals for the
first time in 1657, during the period of Shah Jahan.
In 1659 Bijapur Sulthan Ali Adilshah sent Afzal
Khan to kill Shivaji. But he killed Afsal Khan.
In 1660 Aurangazeb deputed his viceroy of
Deccan, Shaisthakhan to kill Shivaji.
1665, Shivaji signed the treaty of Purandar with
Raja Jai Singh of Ambher, who was deputed by
In 1666 Shivaji visited Aurangazeb in his court at
Agra. But he and his son Sambaji were impris-
oned by Aurangazeb in the Jaipur Bhavan.
On 16th June 1674 Shivaji crowned himself an
independent Hindu king became the Chatrapathi
and assumed the title ‘Haidavadhasmodharak’.
Shivaji died in 1680 at the age of 53.
Shahu became the Chatrapathi in 1708 and his
period witnessed the rise of Peshwaship.
Balaji Vishwanath (1712 – 1720) Baji Rao (1720 –
40) Balaji BajiRao I (1740 – 61) and Madhav Rao I
(1761 – 1772) were the Peshwas who ruled
Baji Rao popularised the idea of Hindu
Padpadshahi or Hindu Empire.
Balaji Baji Rao’s period witnessed the Third Battle
of Panipat in 1761. In this battle Ahmed Shah
Abdali of Afghanistan defeated the Marathas.
Madhava Rao was the last great Peshwa.
Last Peshwa was Baji Rao II.
Madhava Rao’s period witnessed the disintegra-
tion of the Maratha power and the formation of in-
dependent kingdoms – Holkarofindor, Bhonsle of
Nagpur, Sindhya of Gwalior and Gaekwad of Baroda.
Shivaji’s Council of Ministers was known as
Ashtapradhan. They were Peshwa, Pandit Rao,
Sumant, Sachiva, Senapathi, Amatya, Mantri and
Peshwa was the Maratha Chief Minister.
Chaudh and Sardesh Mukhi were two special laxes
collected by the Marathas.
The first Maratha war (1775 -82) Swai Madhav
Rao Vs Raghunath Rao with English support.
Second Maratha war 1803 – 05.
Third Maratha war 1816 – 19.
The last great Soldier and statesman of Maratha
was Nana Phadavnis (1800)
The Maratha script was called Modiscript.
Peshwaship was abolished in 1818
Baji Rao was the ablest of the Peshwas.
Shivaji did not allow women in his military camp.
The Marathas were equipped with an efficient
naval system under Shivaji.
‘Sikh’ is a sanskrit word which means ‘desciple’
Sikh religion was founded by
Guru Nanak was born was born
at Talwandi in Lahore, belonged
to the Khatri Caste (Mercantile
Nanak called his creed as
Gurumat or Guru’s wisdom.
GuruNanak was born in 1469 and died in 1538.
He was the first Guru of the Sikhs.
Nanak preached only in Punjabi.
Nanak nominated Guru Angad as his successor.
Guru Angad introduced Gurumukhi Script. He
also compiled Guru Nanak’s biography Janam
Langar or free community dining was also intro-
duced by Guru Angad.
Third Sikh Guru was Amar Das. He started the
Manji system ie, branches for the propagation of
Sikhs. He made Guruship hereditory.
Guru Ramdas was the fourth Sikh Guru. He
founded the city of Amritsar. The place for the
city was donated by Akbar.
Under the fifth Sikh Guru, Guru Arjun Dev,
Sikhism became an organised religion. He com-
piled the ‘Adi Grandh’ the sacred book of the
Sikhs. He built a temple at Amritsar , (later the
Golden Temple) Har Mandir Sahib. He helped
Jahangir’s son Prince Khusru to rebel against the
Emperor So he was executed by Jahangir at Lahore
in 1606 AD.
The sixth Guru Hargovind, created a Sikh army
and turned against Shah Jahan. He founded a
palace opposite to Harmandir Sahib known as
‘Akaltakt’. He also adopted the title Sacha
Padusha, which means true ruler. (the title was
not adopted by Teg Bahadur)
Seventh Guru was Har Rai. He was succeeded
by Guru Harkishan. Har Kishan became the Guru
at the age of five, hence he is the youngest Sikh
The 10th and the last Guru, Govind Singh formed
the Khalsa or the Sikh brotherhood.
He introduced ‘Panchkakar’ of Sikhism -ie Kesh
(long hair) Kanga (Comb) Kripan (Sword), Kachha
(Underwear) and Kara (Iron bangk)
He introduced baptism and wanted every Sikh to
bear community surname ‘Singh’ or lion.
His aim was the establishment of a Sikh State af-
ter overthrowing the Mughals. In 1708 he was
killed by an Afghan.
‘Vichithra Natak’ is the autobiography of Guru
Kartarpur Dabir is the root form of Guru Grandh
Govind Singh proclaimed the Grandh Sahib as
the eternal Guru.
Renjith Singh (1780 – 1836)
Renjith Singh became the ruler of Punjab in 1799.
He assumed the title Maharaja
The 1809 the British and Renjith
Singh made the Treaty of
Amritsar during the period of
In 1809 Shah Shuja the grand-
son of Ahmedshah Abdali pre-
sented the Kohinoor diamond to Ranjith Singh.
Later Punjab was annexed to the British territo-
ries by Lord Dalhousie in 1849. Sir John Lawrence
became the first Chief Commissioner of Punjab.
The Sikhs fought two wars against the English
First Anglo-Sikh War (1845- 1846) and the Sec-
ond Anglo-Sikh war (1848 – 1849)
The Bhakti Movement
Love and devotion to one personal God is the
basic concept of Bhakti.
The Alvars or Vaishanava saints and Nayanars
or Saivite, saints became the promoters of Bhakti
movement in South India.
Ramanuja, a Vaishana saint of 12th century AD,
was born at Sriperumbathur and founded philoso-
phy of Vishistadvaita or qualified monism.
Guru Nanak ………………………… 1469-1538
Guru Angad ……………………… 1538 – 1552
Guru Amardas …………………… 1552 – 1574
Guru Ramdas …………………….. 1574 – 1581
Guru Arjundev ………………….. 1581 – 1606
Guru Hargovind …………………. 1606 – 1645
Guru Har Rai ……………………… 1645 – 1661
Guru Har Kishan ………………….. 1661-1664
Guru Teg Bahadur ………………… 1664-1675
Guru Govind Singh …………….. 1675 – 1708
The leader of Bhakti movement or Hindu revival-
ism was Sankaracharya. His philosophy was
Advaita or pure monism. He wrote Commentary
on Brahmasutra and Upanishad. He founded four
matts- Sringeri, Dwaraka, Puri and Badrinath.
Vallabhacharya promoted the philosophy of
Pushtimarga. He was the founder of Sudhadvaita.
The North India the Bakti movement was pro-
moted by two sects of thought – the Saguna and
Ramanand, born at Prayag preached
Vaishnavaism. He was a followers of Ramanuja.
Kabir (1398 -1458) a nirguna was born near
Benaras. His followers started the ‘Kabirpanthis’.
Tulasi Dasa (1532 – 1623) a worshipper of Rama
compossed Ramcharithamanasa in Hindi. His
other works are Kavitavali and Gitavali.
Mirabai (1498 – 1509) a Rajaput princess hailed
from the Sisodiya dynasty of Chittoor was a devo-
tee of Lord Krishna. Her lyrics were written in
Brijbhasha and in Rajasthani.
Jnanadeva, Namadeva, Eknatha Tukaram and
Samarth Ram Das were the leading Maratha
saints of Bhakti movement.
Jnanadeva founded the Maharashtra Dharma. His
famous work ‘Jnaneswari’ is a commendarel on
Ekanath promoted the custom of singing
Kirthana and he composed ‘abhangas’ or typical
Tukaram a contemporary of Shivaji was the pro-
moter of Maratha nationalism.
Samarth Ramdas, the spiritual guide of Shivaji,
Mythical movement of the Muslims was known
Sufi movement first came to India in the wake of
Muhammed Ghazni’s invasion in the 11th cen-
Sufi orders are called Silsilahs.
Chishti Silsilah was founded by Khawaja
Moinuddin Chishti of Ajmir.
Sufism declined in the 17th Century.
Famous Personalities in Medieval
Al Masudi – An Arabian traveller who came to
India in 10th century AD.
Al Beruni – He came to India with Muhammed
Ghazni, his book, Tahrik-ul-Hindh.
Abbas Khan Shervani : He was a historian of
Shershahs time. He wrote Tarikh-1-Shershahi.
Abul Fazal : He was a a great scholar poet Histo-
rian in the court of Akbar. He wrote Akbarnamah
and Ain-i- Akbari.
Bhaktiyar Khilji : Commander of Muhammed
Ghori who conquered Bengal and crushed the
Bhar Mal : He was the Rajput ruler of Amber. His
daughter Jodabai was married to Akbar. Akbars
commanders Bhangavandas and Mansingh were
his son and grandson respectively.
Chathaniya : He popularised ‘Bhakti’ in Bengal.
He was worshipper of Krishna.
Chand Bibi : She was the daughter of Nizam Shai
ruler of Ahmed Nagar and was married to the Adil
Shahi ruler of Bijapur. As a widow she fought
with Mughals to save her dynasty.
Bairam Khan : He helped Akbar to defeat Hemu.
Firadusi : famous poet in the court of Muhammed
Ghazni He wrote Shah Namah (The book of kings).
He is known as Indian Homer or Persian Homer.
Ibn Batuta : He was an African (Morocco) who
visited the court of Muhammed bin Tughlaq and
wrote the book ‘Rihala’.
Hasan Gangu – founder of Bahmani dynasty un-
der the name Alauddin Bahamanshah.
Jai Chandra – He was the ruler of Kanauj, be-
longed to the Gahawala dynasty. He was defeated
in 1194 by Muhammed Ghori in the battle of
Khawaja Moinuddin Chisti : He was a sufi saint
of 12th century who started the Chishtia sect at
Islam Shah : Second Sur ruler, son of Shersha He
codified the law and introduced an impartial sys-
tem of Justice.
Lalitaditya of Karkota dynasty : He ruled over
Kashmir from 724 to 760. The famous Martand
Mandir temple was built by him.
Malik Kafur : He was an army commander of
Alauddin Khilji – who conquered south India for
him. He was converted to Islam from Hinduism.
Muhamed Gawan : He was a minister to the
Malik Amber : He was a Syrian slave who could
became the Prime Minister of Ahmed Nagar. He
administered the State very well fought against
the Mughals and Marathas.
Mirza Ghias Beg : He was the father of Nur Jahan
and received the title Etmatuddaula. His tomb is
Murshid Quli Khan : He was an independent
ruler of Bengal, who founded the city of
Rana Kumbha : He was a Rajput ruler of 15th
century He built a kirti Stambh at Chittar.
Advent of the Europeans
A new Sea route to India via Cape of Good Hope
(Southern tip of South Africa) by Vasco da Gama
in 1498 AD marked the beginning of European
period in Indian History.
He first arrived at Kapad near Kozhikode in Kerala.
Saint Gabriel was the name of the ship in which
Vasco-da-Gama landed at Kappad, the port of
Zamorine of Calicut.
The most famous Portuguese men from the point
of view of India Vasco da Gama, Almeida andexampundit.in
Vasco-da-Gama arrived for the second time in 1502
and for the third chance in 1524. He died at Fort
Cochin and was cremated at the St. Frnacis
Church there. Later his remains were brought back
Don Francisco de’Almedia was the first Portu-
guese governor in the East. His policy was called
‘‘the bluewater policy’’ which aimed at the
establishement of strong navy.
In 1507 the Portuguese arrived at Madras. The
city finally got its name from their leader Madra.
The greatest Portuguese governor to the East was
Albuquerque. He was the real founder of the Por-
tuguese authority in India.
Albuquerque tried to abolish Sati.
His policy mixed colony system was to encour-
age intermarriage between the Portuguese and
They Portuguese religious policy was
Lantinisation of Kerala.
The conflict for the establishment of Latin rite
and syrian rite led to the Coonan Cross Oath in-
cident in 1653.
The Portuguese introduced agricultural products
such a cashew, coconut, custardapple, pineapple
etc in India.
They introduced Tobacco in the court of Akbar
Portuguese authority in Indian seas remained upto
The Portuguese started the first press in India at
Goa in 1556.
The first Portuguese fort in India was constructed
Portuguese captured Goa from the Bijapur Sulthan
In 20 March 1602 the United East India Company
of the Netherlands was formed. The Name of the
Dutch Company was Vereenidge Oostindische
The Dutch set up their first factory at
Masulipattanam in 1605.
In 1663 the Dutch captured Cochin.
In 1741 Marthandavarma, the Travancore ruler
defeated the Dutch in the Battle of Kolachal.
The final Collapse of the Dutch came with their
defeat by the English in the Battle of Bedara in
The English and the French
The English East India Company was formed by
a group of Merchants known as ‘The Merchant
Adventurers’ in 1599.
Early Name of the company was John Company.
English East India Company was formally estab-
lished on 31st December 1600 by a Charter issued
by Queen Elizabeth of the Tudor dynasty.
Hector, the first ship of the English East India
company reached Surat on 24 August 1606.
In 1612 the Company became a joint stock com-
Sir Thomas Roe, first ambassador of James I of
England landed at Surat and met Jahangir in 1613
and the first English factor, was established at
The company acquired Bombay from Charles II
on lease which he got as dowry from Portugal.
The designation of ‘Chief Justice’ was introduced
in India by the English in 1678.
Madras became the first presidency chartered as
municipal corporation with Mayor’s court 1687.
Job Charnock founded the city of Calcutta.
Colbert the minister of Louis XIV created the
compangnile des Indes Orientales in 1664.
Francis Carton set up the first French factory at
Surat in 1668.
The First French Governor of Ponicherry was
The arrival of Dupleix as French Governor in In-
dia in 1742 saw the beginning of Anglo- French
The first Carnatic war between the French and
the English for supremacy in South India occured
in 1742. It ended in 1748 by the treaty of Aix-la-
The second Carnatic war was from 1748 to 1754.
Robert Clive was the Governor of the English
during the Carnatic wars.
The Gregorian Calendar came to be used through-
out the British dominion in 1752.
The Second Carnatic war ended with the treaty of
Pondicherry in 1754.
The Third Carnatic war was from 1758 to 1763.
At the Battle of Wandiwash Eyre Coot defeated
French general Lally in 1760.
With the treaty of Paris in 1763 peace was settled
between the French and English.
The battle of Plassey was fought in the year 1757
In 1756 Siraj-ud-daula, the Nawab of Bengal, at-
tacked Calcutta and captured it. 146 British pris-
oners including their com-
mander John Zepheria Holwell
and four women were locked
in a small room. 123 of them
died inside due to suffication.
This incident is known a
Battle of Plassey was fought
between Robert Clive and
Siraj-ud-daula, the Nawab of Bengal.
Siraj-ud-daula was defeated in the battle.
Mir Zafar was made the Nawab of Bengal after
the battle of Plassey.
After the battle of Plassey Robert Clive became
the first Governor of Bengal.
The Construction of fort William of Calcutta was
started by Lord Clive.
In 1764 the European Bengal Regiment mutinied
which was followed by the First Indian Sepoy
Mutiny against the British.
The combined forces of Mirkassim, Emperor of
Delhi and Nawab Shuja-ud-Daula of Oudh were
defeated in the Battle of Buxar on October 23
Robert Clive introduced official postal system in
India in 1766.
Robert Clive introduced ‘Dual government’ in
Conquest of Mysore
Haider Ali was the son of Fatheh Muhammed.He
was born in 1722.
In 1766 he became the ruler of Mysore after the
death of Mysore Raja Krishna Wodeyar.
First Mysore war between Haider Ali and the En-
glish started in 1767 and ended in 1769.
First Anglo-Mysore war ended with the defeat of
English and the treaty of Madras.
Second Mysore war was from 1780 to 1784.
Haider Ali died in 1782 and Tipu Sulthan became
the Mysore ruler.
The second Mysore war ended by the treaty of
Mangalore in 1784.
Second Mysore war was fought during the pe-
riod of Warren Hastings.
Third Mysore war started in 1790 and ended in
The third war ended by the treaty of
Seringapatnam on March 19th1792.
Fourth Anglo Mysore war was in 1799.
Fourth Mysore war was fought during the period
of Governor general wellesley.
In this battle Tipu was killed in 1799 at
Srerangapatanam by Col. Arthur Wellesley.
Tipu’s Capital was Srerangapatanam.
Tipu is known as Mysore Tiger.
Fathul Mujahiddin is the book written by Tippu
which describes about Rockets.
First Anglo Maratha war (1775-82) It ended by
the treaty of Salbai.
Second Anglo-Maratha War was from 1803 to
The treaty of Bassein was signed between the
last Peshwa Baji RaoII and the English in 1802.
The second Maratha War was ended by the treaty
of Rajghat, 1806.
The third Anglo Maratha war was from 1817-
1818. Thus by the end of third Maratha war the
Maratha power disappeared and the English cre-
ated the State of Sathara.
Subsidiary Alliance system and other
Subsidiary Alliance System was used by
Wellesley to bring Indian States within the orbit
of British political power.
First Indian ruler to join the Subsidiary Alliance
System was the Nizam of Hyderabad.
Lord Wellesley is consdiered as the ‘Akbar of
English East India Company’ by Marshman.
Permanent Revenue Settlement was introduced
in Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and districts of Benaras
and northern districts of Madras by Lord
Cornwallis in 1793. It was planned by Johnshore.
Ryotwari System was introduced in Bombay,
Madras and Assam. This system was similar to
Akbar’s revenue policy Zabti system.
Mahalwari System was introduced in Awad re-
gion, Punjab, NWFP and parts of Central India.
Executors of British Policies
Warren Hastings : (1772-85) He introduced quin-
quennial settlement of land revenue in 1772.
He codified the Hindu and Muslim laws.
He founded the Asiatic Society of Bengal with
the help of William Jones in 1784.
The trial of Maharaja Nandakumar (1775) and his
Judicial Murder was during the period of Warren
He abolished the Dual Government in Bengal in
After his return to England he was impeached
there in 1785.
By the Regulating Act 1775 of appointed him
the first Governor General.
First Anglo – Maratha war took place during his
In 1780 James Augustus Hickey started a weekly
paper called Bengal Gazette or Calcutta General
Advertiser during the period of Warren Hastings.
Warren Hastings established a Muhammedan
Madrasa in Calcutta.
Lord Cornwallis (1786 – 93)
He introduced Permanent settlement in 1793.
The Police system was introduced in India.
Cornwallis Code was introduced. It was based
on the separation of powers.
Lord Wellesley (1793 – 1798)
Described himself as Bengali Tiger.
He created the Madras presidency.
Introduced the system of Subsidiary Alliance.
The first state to sign the Subsidiary Alliance sys-
tem was Hyderabad in 1798. Then Mysore,
Tanjore, Awadh, Peshwar, Bhonsle, Sindhia, Jodh-
pur, Jaipur, Mecheri, Bundi, Bharatpur and Berar
signed the subsidiary treaty.
Lord Wellesley fought the second Maratha war.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy wrote the Tuhfat-ul-
Muwahiddin (gift to the Monotheists) during his
Lord Minto (1807-1813)
Signed the treaty of Amritsar in 1809 between
Ranjith Singh of Punjab and the English.
Lord Hastings (1813-23)
He was made Marques of Hastings due to his
success in the Gorkhar war or the Anglo Nepalis
He abolished the Peshwaship and annexed his
territories to the Bombay presidency after the third
Anglo-Maratha war (1818)
Introduced the Ryotwari System in Madras presi-
dency by Governor Thomas Munroe in 1820 un-
der the governor generalship of Hastings.
Mahalwari System of land revenue was intro-
duced in North West Province by James Thomson.
Lord William Bentinck (1828- 35)
First Governor General of India by the govern-
ment of India Act of 1833.
Known as benevolent Governor General.
Banned the practice of Sati in 1829. Suppressed
Tughi in 1830.
Banned female infanticide.
Created the province of Agra in 1834.
Made English to be the court language in higher
court but Persian continued in Lower courts.
Appointed Macaulay as president of the commit-
tee of public instruction, Mecaulays Minutes was
submitted in 1835.
Sir Charles Metcalfe (1835 – 36)
Abolished restriction on press
He is called the ‘‘Liberator of Press’’
First Afghan war was started during the Gover-
nor Generalship of Lord Auckland.
Slavery was abolished by Governor general Lord
Lord Dalhousie (1849 – 56)
Introduced the policy of ‘Doctrine of Lapse’
Indian states annexed through the Doctrine of
Lapse were Satara (1848), Jaitpur and Sambalpur
(1849) Baghatpur (1850), Udaipur (1852) Jhansi
(1853) and Nagpur (1854).
Introduced the Woods Despatch known as the
Magnacarta of English Education in India pre-
pared by Charles Wood in 1854.
Boosted up the development of Railways and laid
the first Railway line in 1853 from Bombay to
Thane and Second from Calcutta to Raniganj.
Gave a great impetus to Post and Telegraph. Tele-
graphic lines were laid – first line from Calcutta to
Shimla was made summer Capital and Army Head
Hindu Marriage Act was passed in 1856.
In 1853 started recruitment of the Covenanted Civil
Service by competitive examination.
A Post Office Act was passed in 1854. Postage
stamps were issued for the first time.
In 1855 the Santhal Uprising took place
Abolished the title of the Nawab of Carnatic.
Socio – Religious Reform Movements
Rammohan Roy (1772 – 1883) and Brahmo Samaj
Raja Ram Mohan Roy is
known as the father of Mod-
ern India, ‘Herald of New
Age’, ‘Bridge between Past
and Future. ‘First Modern
Man in India’ Father of In-
dian Renaissance, Pathfinder
of his Century etc.
Believed in monotheism and opposed idol wor-
Established the ‘Atmiya Sabha’ in Calcutta in 1815
inorder to propagate monotheism and to fight
against the evil customs and practices in Hindu-
He got legitimisation to his views from
In 1821 he started a paper called Samvat Kaumudi.
In 1822 he started Mirat-ul-Akbar, which was the
first journal in Persian.
In the same year Rammohan and Dwarakanath
Tagore jointly started a newspaper called
In 1825 he started the Vedanta College at Calcutta.
In 1828, August he founded the BrahmaSabha
Later in 1845 the name Brahmasamaj was given
to it by Devendranath Tagore.
Against the Brahmasabha orthodox Hindus lead
by Raja Radhakant Deb started Dharmasabha.
In 1829 December 4 Sati was abolished by gover-
nor general William Bentinck.
In 1831 he went to England to argue the case of
Akbar II before the Board of Control.
The Mughal Emperor Akbarshah II gave Ram
Mohan the title ‘Raja’.
After the death of Raja Ram Mohan Roy
Brahmasamaj was divided into several sects.
Adi Brahmasamaj lead by Devendra Nath Tagore
and Bharatiya Brahmasamaj led by Keshav
Chandra Sen were started in 1866.
Sadharana Brahma Samaj was started by
Anandmohan Bose in 1878.
Devendra Nath Tagore was the founder of
Tatvabodhinisabha in Calcutta in 1839.
Keshav Chandrasen started a paper called Indian
Mirror in 1861.
Brahmasamaj reached outside Bengal under
Keshav Chandra Sen.
Keshav Chandra Sen was the first Indian who
attempted to reform the society on an all India
Surendra Nath Banerjee was the first Indian to
took up his political activity on an all India basis.
‘Precepts to Jesus’ is a book written by Rajaram
Thuhafath ul – muvahiddin or Gift to Monothe-
ists is also a work of Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
Founded in 1867 in Bombay by Dr. Atmaram
Pandurang (not by MG Ranade) as an offshoot
of the Brahmasamaj.
It was later joined by M.G. Ranade and R.G.
It was founded by Swami
Dayanand Saraswathi in
He considered Vedas as
eternal and infalliable and
said ‘Go back to Vedas’
Dayanand Saraswati (1824
– 1883) was a Sanyasi from
He was the first to teach an aggressive, reformed
and militant Hinduism.
Dayanand, was known in his early life as Mul
He founded the Arya Samaj at Bombay in 1575.
He is known as Luther of Hinduism.
He was the first to use the terms – Swarajya
Swabhasha and Swadharma.
He was the first to consider Hindi as a National
He started the Suddhi Movement to re-convert to
Hinduism those who were converted to other re-
His book Satyartha Prakash is a commentary on
He started Dayanand Anglo Vedic College in 1866.
Aryaprakash was the news paper started by
Shri Ramakrishna Paramhamsa (1834 – 1886)
was born in Kumarpukur village in the Hoogly
village of Bengal.
His early name was Shuddirama Gadhadhar
He was a priest in the Dakshineswar Kali temple.
So he is called the Saint of Dakshineswar.
The most famous disciple of
Vivekananda (1861 – 1903).
Vivekananda was born in a
Kayastha family of Calcutta.
He attended the Parliament
of Reigions at Chicago in
1893, September 11.
He was invited to the Congress of the History of
Religions at Paris in 1900.
He founded the Ramakrishana Mission on Ist May
1899 the Matha or the centre of the mission was
shifted to Belur.
He started two papers – the monthly Prabudha
Barat in English and Udbodhana a Bengali fort-
He is called the‘patriot saint of India’.
He was also described as a ‘‘Cyclonic Hindu’’.
In 1898 Sister Nivedita, (Margaret Elizebth Noble)
an Irish lady was initiated to brahmacharya by
The Theosophical Society was founded by Ma-
dame Blavatsky and Col. H.S.Olcott in Newyork
In 1882 it shifted its head quarters to Adayar near
Its philosophy was inspired by the Hindu
Dr.Annie Basant came to India in 1893, was its
In 1898 she started the Central Hindu School at
Benaras, it later became Benaras Hindu Univer-
sity under Madan Mohan Malavya (1916).
She was the first woman to become the president
of INC in 1917.
She started the Home Rule League with the Co-
operation of Bal Gangadhar Tilak in 1916 with
Dadabhai Naoroji as its President.
Young Bengal Movement
Started by Henry Vivian Derozio, teacher in the
Calcutta Hindu College.
His followers were known as the Derozians They
attacked the old traditions and decadant customs.
In 1828 he started the Academic Association.
Gopal Ganesh Agarkar
Reformer from Maharashtra he advocated the
power of human reason.
He founded the Deccan Education Society at
Poona in 1884 with Tilak, V.K. Chiplunkar and
N M Joshi.
Belonging to the low caste of Mali from
Maharashtra, struggled against upper caste domi-
nation and Brahamincal supremacy through his
Sathyashodhak Samaj founded in 1873.
He wrote Ghulam-giri in 1872 exposing the con-
ditions of the backward castes.
He pioneered the Widow Remarriage Movement
in Maharashtra and worked for the education of
It was started in 1887 by Shiv Narayan Agnihotri
The religious text of this Samaj was Deva Shastra
and the teaching Devadharma.
Initially a member of Ghoklale’s Servants of India
He founded the Social Service League at Bombay
He also founded the All India Trade Union Con-
gress in 1920 at Bombay.
He left AITUC in 1929 and started the Indian
Trades Union Federation.
He founded the Seva Samiti at Allahabad in 1914
with the objective of organising social service
during the natural calamities and promoting edu-
cation sanitation, physical culture etc.
Shri Ram Bajpal
Founded the Seva Samiti Boys Scouts Associa-
tion in 1914 at Bombay on the lines of world wide
Baden Powell organisation, which at that time
banned Indians from Joining it.
Most prominent social reformer of South India in
the second half of the 19th Century.
He founded the Rajmundri Social Reform Asso-
ciation in 1878 with the principal objective of pro-
moting widow remarriage.
Muslim Reform Movements
This movement was started by Sir Syed Ahmad
Khan (1817 – 98)
Sir Syed’s journal Tahzib-ul-Akhlaq advocated a
rational approach towards religion.
He founded the Muhammadan Literarary Soci-
ety at Calcutta in 1863.
In 1875 he founded the Aligarh Muhammadan
Anglo-Oriental College, (later Aligarh Muslim
Altaf Hussain Hali, Dr. Nazir Ahmad, Nawab
Mutin Ul Mulk, Chirag Ali etc were the prominent
leader of Aligarh Movement.
In 1866 Syed Ahmed Khan founded the Muslim
Founded by Mirza Ahmad at Quadiani in Punjab.
Sikh Reform Movements
In 1873 the Singh Sabha Movement was founded
The Akali Movement was also started for Sikh
Kuka Movement was started with the aim of Sikh
reform and restoration of Sikh sovereignty in
Punjab by driving the British away.
Kuka movement was founded by Bagat
Jawaharmal, popularly known as Sian Sahib in
the 19th century.
Kukas recognised Guru Govind Singh as the only
true Guru of the Sikhs.
Some other Reformers
Prof. D.K. Karve who took the cause of widow
remarriage started the Indian Women University
at Bombay in 1916.
B.M. Malabari started a Crusade against child
marriage and his efforts were crowned by the en-
actment of the Age consent Act. 1891.
Ahrar Movement was founded in 1910 under the
leadership of Maulana Mohamed Ali.
The Revolt of 1857
The Great Mutiny of 1857 took place during the
period of Lord Canning.
The Centres and Leaders of the Revolt
Lucknow – Begum Hazrat Mahal
Kanpur – Nana Saheb
Delhi – General Bhaktkhan
Bihar – Kunwar Singh
Jhansi – Rani Lekshmi Bai
Faridabad – Maulavi Ahmmadulla
Bareili – Khan Bahadur
Major Tribal Movements
Tribe Area Year
Chuars W.Bengal 1768 – 1832
Bhils Khandesh 1818 – 1848 – Sevaram
Hos Chotanagpur 1820-1832
Kolis Sahyadri hillis 1824 – 48
Kharies Khasi hils 1829 – 32 – Tirut Singh and Barmanik
Singh Phos Assam 1830 – 39
Kols Chotanagpur 1831 – 32 – Budho Bagat
Kayar Andhra Pradesh 1840 – 1924 – Alluri Sitaram Raju
Kachnagar Assam 1882 – Sambudhan
Ahom Assam 1828 – 33 – Gomdhar Konovar
Khonds Orissa 1846 – 1914 Chattre Bisayi
Santhals Rajmahal Hills 1855 – 56 Sidhu and Kanhu
Naikadas Gujarat 1858 – 68 Rup Singh Jogia Bhagat
Mundas Chotanagpur 1899 – 1900 Birsa Munda
Bhils South Rajasthan 1933 Govind Guru
Oraons Chotanagpur 1914 – 1915 Jatra Bhagat
Kukis Manipur 1917 – 19 Rani Gaidinlue
Rampa Andhra Pradesh 1916 – Alluri Sitaram Raju
The revolt of 1857 ended in failure but it promoted
the spirit of Nationalism and Patriotism.
The 19th Native Infantry
at Berhampur which re-
fused to use the greased
Cartridge and the enfield
rifle, started mutiny in Feb-
ruary 26, 1857.
The first shot was fired on
March 29 by Mangal
Pandey (of Ballia, UP) of
the 14th Bengal Infantry at
Barrakpore of Bengal.
Mangal Pandey was hanged to death on 29 March
May 10, 1857 witnessed the real mutiny at Meerut
then in Delhi on 11th May.
Kharies Khasi hils 1829 – 32 – Tirut Singh and Barmanik
Kols Chotanagpur 1831 – 32 – Budho Bagat
Kayar Andhra Pradesh 1840 – 1924 – Alluri Sitaram Raju
Ahom Assam 1828 – 33 – Gomdhar Konovar
Khonds Orissa 1846 – 1914 Chattre Bisayi
Santhals Rajmahal Hills 1855 – 56 Sidhu and Kanhu
Naikadas Gujarat 1858 – 68 Rup Singh Jogia Bhagat
Mundas Chotanagpur 1899 – 1900 Birsa Munda
Bhils South Rajasthan 1933 Govind Guru
Oraons Chotanagpur 1914 – 1915 Jatra Bhagat
Kukis Manipur 1917 – 19 Rani Gaidinlue
Rampa Andhra Pradesh 1916 – Alluri Sitaram Raju
The first British to loose
his life was Col.Finnis Meerut.
Bahadurshah II surren-
dered to Lt. W.S.R. Hodson on Sep-
tember 21, 1957 at Humayun’s Tomb
The capture of Delhi and
the proclamation of Bahadurshah as
the Emperor of Hindustan gave a
positive political meaning to the re-
The immediate cause for
the 1857 revolt was the introduction
of the greased Catridges.
Educated middle class
section of Indian population did not
support the revolt fo 1857.
As a result of the revolt
of 1857 the then Governor General
Lord Canning was appointed as the
Viceroy of India.
On November 1, 1858 a
proclamation was made by the
Queen to the people of India in
‘‘The best and the bravest mili-
tary leader of the rebels’’ sir
Hugh Ross said this about Rani
The original name of Rani of
Jhansi was Mani Karnika.
The administration by Indian
civil service officers started as
a result of the Queen’s proclamation.
The revolt was completely crusted in 1858.
Benjamin Disraeli described the revolt as a ‘‘Na-
V.D. Savarkar in his book ‘‘First war of Inde-
pendence’’ called it ‘‘The First War of Indepen-
‘‘Eighteen Fifty Seven’’ is a book written by
Surendra Nath Sen.
The Great Indian National Movement
The most important events during Lord Duferin’s
Period (1884-1888) were the third Anglo Burmese
War (1885-86) and the establishment of the first
All India organisation, the Indian National Con-
The INC was founded in December 28, 1885 at the
Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit College, Bombay.
72 delegates participated in the first session of
It was founded by A.O. Hume a retired Civil Ser-
W.C. Banerjee was the first president of INC.
The Indian Association of S.N. Banerjee and
Anand Mohan Bose, organised an All Indian Na-
tional Conference in 1883
December. They had
given a call for another
conference in 1885.
The term ‘congress’ was
desired from the history
of The United States of
‘Congress’ means as-
sembly of the people.
The name Congress was suggested to the
organisation by DadaBai Naoroji.
Dadabai Naoroji founded the East Indian Asso-
ciation in 1866.
A.O. Hume was the General Secretary of INC till
The Second Session of the INC met at Calcutta in
December 1886, under the presidentship of
Dadabhai Naoroji. Here the National Conference
merged itself with the INC.
The second session was attended by 436 del-
egates and there were 2000 delegates in 1889.
The period from 1885 to 1905 is known as the
Moderate Phase of Indian National Congress.
Prominent leaders of this phase were Dadabhai
Naoroji, Badruddin Tyabji, Pheroz Shah Mehta,
Surendranath Banerjee, Gopalakrishna Gokhale
‘‘We do not ask favours, we only want justice’’,
these were the words Dadabhai Naroji.
Dadabhai Noaroji is the author of the book ‘‘Pov-
erty and UnBritish Rule in India’’ which con-
tains the famous ‘‘drain theory’’.
The British committee of INC was founded in 1889.
Aurobindo Ghosh called INC a ‘‘begging insti-
Bibin Chandra Pal viewed ‘‘INC playing with
Tilak, the father of Indian unrest said ‘‘INC should
distinguish between begging and claiming
right’’ Tilak said ‘‘Rights are not begged they
The congress sessions lasts only for three days
Dadabhai Naoroji is known as ‘‘The Grand Old
Man of India’’. He was the first Indian to become
a member of the House of Commons on the Lib-
eral Partys ticket. He became the president of INC
thrice, in 1886, 1893 and 1906. He founded ‘Gyan
Prakash Mandali’ and Bombay Association in
1852. He is also known as father of Indian Eco-
nomics and Politics.
Badruddin Tyabji was the first Indian barrister at
Bombay High Court. He was the first Muslim
president of INC. He became the third president
of INC in Madras session in 1887.
W.C. Banerjee founded the Bombay chronicle in
1913 and the ‘Moderate school’.
S.N. Banerjee founded the Indian Association in
1876. He was the first President of Indian National
Liberal Federation (1918).
Gopalakrishna Gokhale founded the ‘Servants
of India Society in 1905.
K.T. Telang became the first ‘‘Hardworking sec-
retary’’ of INC.
Jawaharlal Nehru observed the Early Congress
to be ‘‘an English knowing upper class affair’’.
George Yule was the first foreigner to become
the President of INC. (1888, Allahabad)
Gopala Krishna Gokhale was populary known as
Year.. Organisation Founder Place
1838 … Landholders society ……………………….. Dwaraknath Tagore ……………………………. Calcutta
1839 … British India Society………………………… William Adams ………………………………….. London
1851 … British India Association………………….. Devendranath Tagore …………………………. Calcutta
1862 … London India Committee ………………….. C.P. Mudaliar …………………………………….. London
1866 … East India Association …………………….. Dadabhai Naoroji ……………………………….. London
1867 … National Indian Association ……………… Mary Carpenter …………………………………. London
1872 … Indian Society ……………………………….. Anand Mohan Bose …………………………… London
1876 … Indian Association …………………………. Anand Mohan Bose andS.N. Banerjee …… Calcutta
1883 … Indian National Society……………………. Shishir Chandra Bose …………………………. Calcutta
1884 … Indian National Conference ………………. S M Banerjee …………………………………….. Calcutta
1885 … Bombay Presidency Association ……….. Mehta and Telang ……………………………… Bombay
1888 … United India Patriotic Association ……… Sir Syed Ahmed Khan…………………………. Aligarh
1905 … Servants of India Society …………………. G.K. Gokhale …………………………………….. Bombay
1920 … Indian Trade Union Congress …………… NM Joshi (founder) ……………………………. Lucknow
1924 … All India Communist Party………………… Satyabhakta ……………………………………… Kanpur
1928 … Khudai Khidmatgar …………………………. Abdul Gaffar Khan …………………………….. Peshwar
1936 … All India Kisan Sabha ……………………… Sahajananda and N.J. Ranga ………………… Lucknow
1940 … Radical Democratic Party………………….. M.N. Roy …………………………………………. Calcutta
the ‘Socrates of Maharahstra’. M.G. Ranade was
the political guru of Gokhale.
Gokhale is considered as the political guru of
Sarojini Naidu was the first
Indian woman to become the
president of Indian National
Congress (1925 Kanpur ses-
Nellin Sengupta became the
third woman President of INC,
1933 at the Calcutta Session.
The word Swaraj was first used in the Calcutta
First Joint session of Congress and Muslim
League was held at Lucknow 1916.
First session held in a village was 1937 session
held at Fazipur.
Only session presided over by Gandhi – Belgaum
Complete independence was demanded for the
first time (1929) at Lahore.
For the first time National Song was sung in the
Calcutta session (1896) of INC ie Vande Mataram.
During the fourth session of INC (1888, Allahabad)
emphasise was given on the formation of its con-
During the Nagpur session 1891, the word Na-
tional was added to congress.
During the Poona session (1895) representives
for the second time discussed on the formation
of its Constitution.
In the Lucknow session of the Congress (1916)
the two factions of congress (extremists and mod-
During the special session of the congress in
Calcutta (1920) Gandhi proposed to start Non-co
operation Movement. Instead of Constitutional
self-government congress declared Swaraj Party
During the Delhi session (1923) Indian National
Congress decided to establish All India Khadi
During the Guwahati session of INC (1926) wear-
ing Khadi was made cumpulsory to its workers.
During the Madras session (1908) its constitu-
tion was formed.
In Madras session of the INC (1927) proposals
for independence and to boycott Simon Com-
mission were passed
During the Karachi session (1931) Fundamental
Rights and Economic Policy proposals were
During its 1932 and 1933 Sessions Government
had declared INC an illegal organisation.
During the Lucknow session (1936) Nehru ex-
plained for the first time.
During Faizpur session (1937) Congress decidedexampundit.in
to takepart in election of 1937.
1938 session of Congress was held in a village
In the Ramagarh session (1904) decision was
taken on Individual Satyagraha.
While Britishers tried to use Congress as a safety
valve, Indian leaders tried to use it as a lightning
During the Tripura session (1939) Subash Chandra
Bose defeated Pattabhi Sitaramayya (Gandhi’s
candidate in presidential election) but later re-
signed and Rajendra Prasad became the presi-
During Calcutta session (1928) first All India
Youth Congress was established.
During the Delhi session (1918) along with S.N.
Banerjee many liberals resigned and Rajendra
Prasad became its president.
Aurobindo published New Lamps For Old. It was
the first systematic critic of the Moderates.
The radical wing of the INC that emerged at the
end of the 19th century is referred to as the Ex-
The main leaders of the Extremist Group were Lala
Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, B.C. Pal and
Tilak asserted Swaraj is my birthright and I shall
Tilak started two newspapers the Mahratha in
English and the Kesari in Marathi. He started
Sivaji festival to stimulate nationalism.
Lord Curzon Partitioned Bengal on 20th July 1905
as a part of the ‘Divide and Rule Policy’.
Rabindra Nath Tagore composed ‘Amer Sonar
Bengla’ as a part of ante
which later became the
National Anthem of
Boycott of British prod-
ucts was first sug-
gested by Krishna
Kumar Mitra in
The Swadeshi Movement was started in 1905.
‘Charka’ (spinning wheel) came to typify the
popular concern for country’s economic self suf-
Swadesh Bandhav Samiti of Barisal founded by
Ashwini Dutt was the largest Volunteer body to
support Swadeshi Movement.
First real labour union – The Printers Union was
formed on October 1905.
Vande Mataram Movement was started by
Chandra Pal in Madras
Tilak began the Swadesh Vastra Pracharine
Sabha to propagate Swadeshi Movement.
Savarkar founded ‘Mitra mela’.
Chakravarthi Vijiaraghavacharya was the first
Indian leader to undergo imprisonment in 1882.
He was an extremist leader. He was the first In-
dian to draft a Swaraj constitution for India which
was presented at the Madras session in 1927.
First congress leader to suffer severe terms of
imprisonment for the sake of the country was Bal
Tilak wrote ‘Gita Rahasya’.
Bipin Chandrapal started an English weekly New
Bipin Chandrapal founded Bande Mataram in 1906
Lala Lajpat Rai is popularly known as Sher-e-
Punjab (Lion of Punjab). He founded and edited
‘‘The Punjabee’’, ‘The Vante Mataram’ and the
English weekly ‘‘The people’’.
The Bengali daily Yugandar was started by
Aurobindo Gosh. He also started weeklies
‘Karma Yogin’ and ‘Dharma’.
The Formation of the Muslim League
All India Muslim League was founded under the
Leadership of Aga Khan to divert the Muslims
from the National Political Movement. On Decem-
ber 30th Nawab Salimulla Khan of Dhaka became
its first President.
Muhammed Iqbal, who presided over the
Allahabad session of the League in 1930 gave
the idea of Separate Muslim State in North West
India. Hence Iqbal is known as the father of the
idea of Pakistan. But the name ‘Pakistan’ was
framed by Rahmat Ali.
Mohammed Ali Jinnah gave his famous Two Na-
tion Theory in March 1940, at the Lahore session
of the Muslim League.
Sarojini Naidu called Jinnah the Prophet of Hindu-
Later Jinhah became the first Governor General of
Pakistan. He is also known as the father of Paki-
Surat Split (1907)
The clash between the Moderates and Extrem-
ists culminated in a split which occurred at Surat
Dr. Rash Bihari Bose was the INC President dur-
ing the Surat Split.
After the Surat Split the congress remained un-
der the control of the Moderates.
The Moderates did not approve the boycott of
foreign goods but the Extenmists favoured it. The
Moderates continued to have faith in the good
intensions of the British government. They
wanted self government in gradual stages, while
the Extremists wanted complete autonomy at the
Minto-Morley Reforms of 1909
The Minto Morley Reforms for the first time tried
to introduce communal representation (for
muslims) and a popular element in the govt.
The real purpose of the reforms of 1909 was to
confuse the Moderate nationalists and to check
the growth of unity among Indians.
Home Rule Movement (1916)
Home Rule Movement was started by Annie
Besant and Tilak in 1916.
Self government for India in British Empire and
work for national education, social and political
reform etc were the aims of Home Rule League.
Annie Besnat was the first woman president of
INC (1917, Calcutta Session)
Annie Besant set up the newspapers -New India,
Common Weal and Young India (1916).
Home Rule Movement marks the beginning for
the attainment of Swaraj.
The Montague declaration of 1917 was the great-
est achievement of the Home Rule League.
The Lucknow session of the Indian National Con-
gress in 1916 marked the re union of the Moder-
ates and Extremists together at Lucknow in 1916.
The Lucknow pact was executed between the
congress and Muslim League in 1916.
Montegue – Chelmsford Reforms 1919
It is also known as the Government of India Act
In 1918, Edwin Montague, the Secretary of State
and Lord Chelmsford, the Viceroy produced their
scheme of constitutional reforms which led to the
enactment of the Government of India Act of
The Provincial Legislative Councils were enlarged
and the majority of their members were to be
elected. The provincial government were given
more powers under the system of dyarchy.
Indian National Congress in a special session at
Bombay in August 1918 criticised the reform as
‘disappointing and unsatisfactory’.
The Montague Chelmsford reforms introduced
dyarchy in the provinces.
Provincial subjects were divided into ‘Reversed
subjects’ and ‘‘Transferred Subjects’’.
Central legislature was made bicameral by this
Jalianwala Bagh Massacre – April 13,
In 1919, Rowlatt Act, which authorised the gov-
ernment to detain any person without trial was
The Act was passed during the period of Lord
The official name of the Rowlatt Act was the An-
archical and Revolutionary Crimes Act (1919).
Sir Sydney Rowlatt was the president of the com-
mittee to make proposals for the Act.
C.Sankaran Nair was the only Indian official
member who supported the bill, while all the 22
elected Indian members in the Imperial Legisla-
tive Council opposed the bill.
Gandhiji set up ‘Rowlatt Committee’ to protest
The protest against this ‘Black Act’ was the
strongest in Punjab where it led to the Massacre
at ‘Jalianwala Bagh’ Amritsar on April 13, 1919. It
was on a Baishaki day. The British Officer Gen-
eral Dyer ordered his troops to open fire at un-
armed gathering, who were gathered there to pro-
test against the arrest of their popular leaders
Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew and Dr. Satyapal.
On this occasion Tagore renounced his Knight-
hood in protest.
Michael O’Dyer Governor of the Punjab prov-
ince supported the incident and on March 15,
Martial law was declared.
Gandhiji renounced the ‘Kaiser-i-Hind’ medal
given to him for his work during the Boer War.
Hunter Committee was appointed to enquire into
the Jallianwallah Massacre (1920)
Hunter Commissions report was described by
Gandhiji as a ‘white wash’.
Sardar Udham Singh, who took the name Ram
Muhammed Singh, Sonak Murdered Dyer in En-
gland as a revenge to the Massacre.
The English House of Lords presented a jewelled
sword to General in which was inscribed ‘‘sav-
iour of the Punjab’’.
Events/Acts/Reforms ………….. Viceroy/Governor Generals
Permanent Settlement (1793)………. Lord Cornwallis
Subsidiary Alliance (1798) ………….. Lord Wellesley
Abolition of Sati (1829) ……. Lord William Bentinck
Introduction of Civil service ………. Lord Cornwallis
Doctrine of Lapse ……………………. Lord Dalhousie
Railways started in India …………… Lord Dalhousie
Post and Telegraph ………………….. Lord Dalhousie
English Education in India .. Lord William Bentinck
Vernacular Press Act (1878) ……………..Lord Lytton
Arms Act (1878) ……………………………Lord Lytton
Local Self Government (1882) ………… Lord Rippon
Ryotwari System ………………………….. Lord Munro
Partition of Bengal (1905) ………………. Lord Curzon
Rowlatt Act (1914) …………………. Lord Chelmsford
Simon Commission (1928) … Lord William Bentinck
Sepoy Mutiny (1857) ………………….. Lord Canning
Queens Proclamation (1858) …………. Lord Canning
Factory Act (1881) ………………………… Lord Ripon
Repeal of Vernacular Press Act (1881)Lord Canning
Indian councils Act/Minto -Morley Reforms (1909)
………………………………………………. Lord Minto II
Partition of Bengal revoked (1911) Lord Hardinge II
Transfer Capital to Delhi (1911) … Lord Hardinge II
Dyarchy in province (1919) ……… Lord Chelmsford
Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy (1919).. Lord Chelmsford
Non co-operation ………………….. Lord Chelmsford
Poorna Swaraj resolution (Lahore 1929) . Lord Irwin
Frist Round Table Conference (1930) ….. Lord Irwin
Gandhi Irwin Pact (1931) ………………….. Lord Irwin
Communal Award (1932) ………….. Lord Wellington
Poona Pact (1932) …………………… Lord Wellington
2nd Round Table Conference(1931) …. Lord Wellington
3rd Round Table Conference (1932) ….. Lord Wellington
Separate Electorates (1932) ………. Lord Wellington
Government of India Act (1935) …. Lord Wellington
Provincial Autonomy (1937) ……… Lord Linlithgow
Cripps Mission (1942) ……………….. Lord Linthgow
Quit India Movement ………………. Lord Linlithgow
Cabinet Mission (1946) …………………. Lord Wavell
INA Trial (1945) …………………………… Lord Wavell
Indian Independence Act 1947) ……. Lord Mountbatten
Partition of India (1947) ………… Lord Mountbatten
Non-Co-operation Movement (1920)
Non Co-operation Movement was started with
the aim of the annulment of the Rowlatt Act, and
correcting the ‘Punjab wrong’ changing the
‘Khilafat wrong’ as well as moving towards the
cherished goal of ‘swaraj’.
It was the first mass based political movement
The movement was launched as per the resolu-
tion of Calcutta session and ratified in Nagpur
session in December 1920.
The main emphasise of the movement was on
boycott of schools, colleges, law courts and ad-
vocacy of the use of Charka.
The whole movement was called off on 11th Feb-
ruary 1922 at Gandhi’s insistence following the
news of burning alive of 22 English plicemen by
the angry peasants at ChauriChaura (Chauri
Chaura Incident) in Gorakhpur district of Up on
5th February 1922.
The Non Cooperation movement converted the
national movement into a mass movement . It
strengthened Hindu-Muslim unity.
Khilafat Movement (1919)
The main object of the Khilafat Movement was to
force the British Government to change its atti-
tude towards Turkey and restore the Turkish
Sulthan (Khalifa) to his former position.
A Khilafat committee was formed under the
leadersip of Ali brothers Maulana Azad, Hakim
Ajmal khan, and Hasrat Mohani.
The Khilafat Movement lost its relevance due to
the reforms of Mustafa Kamal Pasha in Turkey.
Pasha abolished Khilafat and made Turkey a secu-
On 1 June 1920 the Khilafat Committee at
Allahabad unanimously accepted Gandhi’s sug-
gestion of non co-operation and asked him to
lead the Movement.
Indian Working Class
First organised strike by any section of the work-
ing class was the Signaler’s Strike in May 1899
in the ‘Great Indian Peninsular (GIP) Railway’.
AITUC was formed in 1920 with Lala Lajpat Rai as
its first President and Dewan Chaman Lal as its
Indian National Congress at its Gaya session of
1922 welcomed the formation of AITUC.
Government appointed the Royal Commission on
Labour in 1929.
In November 1927, the British Government ap-
pointed the Indian Statutory Commission, popu-
larly known as Simon Commission, to go it to the
question of further constitution reform.
The Congress passed a resolution to boycott the
Simon Commission at its Madras session 1927.
The day Simon landed at Mumbai ; 3 February
1928 all the major cities and towns observed a
The Madras session 1927 was presided over by
On the arrival of the Commission in Mumbai in
1928, it met with the slogan ‘‘Go back Simon’’.
There were Seven members in the Simon Com-
mission. but no Indian.
Lala Lajpat Rai was severely wounded in a po-
lice Lathi charge and died while protesting against
To avenge the death of Lala Lajpat Rai, Bhagat
Singh shot dead General Saunders.
Amini Commission on Land Revenue and Famine
Fraser Commission on Agriculture (1902)
Hunter Commission on Punjab Disturbance (1919)
Books and Authors
Vande Mataram ………………… Aurobindo Ghosh
New Lamps for Old …………… Aurobindo Ghosh
Bhavani Mandir ……………….. Aurobindo Ghosh
Hind Swaraj ……………………… Mahatma Gandhi
Gora ………………………….. Rabindranath Tagore
Ghare Baiyare ……………… Rabindranath Tagore
Gitanjali ……………………… Rabindranath Tagore
Discovery of India ………………………. J.L. Nehru
Essays in Indian Economics ……….M.G. Ranade
Arctic Home of the Aryans ……………. B.G. Tilak
Geeta Rahasya …………………………….. B.G. Tilak
Poverty and Un-British Rule in IndiaDada Bhai Naoroji
We ……………………………………. M.S. Golwalkar
Durgesh Nandini …. Bankim Chandra Chatterjee
Bang Darshan……… Bankim Chandra Chatterjee
Anand Math ………. Bankim Chandra Chatterjee
India in Transition ………………………. M.N. Roy
Economic History of British India ……. R.C. Dutt
The Indian Struggle …… Subhash Chandra Bose
Indian Musalmans …………………………… Hunter
Gana Devta ……. Tarashankar Bandhopadhyaya
Philosophy of the Bomb….. Bhagavati Charan Vohra
Why Socialism ……………. Jayaprakash Narayan
Gandhi Versus Lenin ………………….. S.A. Dange
Problem of the East ………………….. Lord Curzon
Neel Darpam …………………. Deen Bandu Mithra
India Today …………………………………. R.P. Dutt
India Wins Freedom ………… Abdul Kalam Azad
Indian Unrest …………………….. Valentine Chirol
Prachya Aur Paschchatya …. Swami Vivekanand
Gau Karunanidhi ……………….. Swami Dyayanda
Letters from Russia ………… Rabindranth Tagore
Wither India ……………………………….. J.L.Nehru
Soviet Asia ……………………………….. J.L. Nehru
Pather Debi ………………. Avanindranath Tagore
History of Hindu Chemistry ……………… P.C. Rai
Peasantry of Bengal ……………………… R.C. Dutt
Rowlatt Commission on Sedition (1919)
Butler Commission on Indian States (1927)
Sapru Commission on Unemployment (1935)
Whitley Commission on Labour (1939)
Floud Commission on Tenancy in Bengal (1940)
Indigo Revolt – 1860
The revolt was directed against the British Plant-
ers who behaved like Feudal Lords in their estates.
The revolt began after Hemachandrakar deputy
Magistrate, published on 17 August, 1859 a proc-
lamation to policmen that they should interefere
with the rights of the peasants to saw whatever
It began at Govindpur village in Nadia and was
led by Digambar Bishwas and Bishnu Bishwas.
Din Bandu Mitra’s novel Neel Darpan protrayed
An Indigo Commission was also appointed in 1860.
Pabna Revolt (Bengal)
In may 1874 an Agrarian League was formed in
Pabna. Main leader was Ishan Chandra Roy. The
revolt was against increased rent.
Champaran Satyagraha (1917)
The peasants in this region were forced to culti-
vate indigo at the prices decided by the British.
This system was known as Tinkathia system.
Gandhiji’s first Satyagraha in India was the
Champaran in 1917.
Kheda Satyagraha (1918)
Chiefly directed against the government.
It was started by Madan Mohan Malavya later
taken up by Gandhiji in 1918.
Swaraj Party (1923)
C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru resigned from con-
gress on 31 December 1922 and founded the
Swaraj Party on 1st January 1923.
Its early name was Congress Khilafat Swaraj
C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru were the frist presi-
dent and Secretary respectively of the Swaraj
C.R. Das gave the slogan ‘Enter the Council’
Swaraj Party was formed at Allahabad.
The 1924 when Gandhi came out of Jail he sup-
ported the programme of Swaraj Party.
Trade Union Movement in India
First Textile Mill : Bombay (1853)
First Jute Mill at Rishra in Bengal (1855)
First Factory Act was passed in 1881.
The Second Factory Act was passed in 1891.
First Industrial Commission was appointed in
The first real labour union was formed in October
1901 in Calcutta called the Printers Union.
The Madras Labour Union was the first
organisation with regular membership and was
started by G. Ramanujalu Naidu, G. Challapathi
and was presided over by B.P. Wadia in 1918.
The All India Trade Union Congress was founded
in 1920. The Indian National Congress President
of the year was elected as its President.
The Trade Union Act of 1926 organised trade
unions as legal Associations.
The Jamshedpur Labour Association was
founded by S.N. Haldar and Byomkesh
Chakravarthy in 1920.
In 1929, All India Trade Union Federation was
formed under the leadership of NM Joshi.
The Congress Socialist Party was founded in
Kanpur Labour Enquiry Committee was founded
under the chairmanship of Rajendra Prasad.
In 1944 national leaders lead by Sardar Patel
organised the Indian National Trade Union Con-
Civil Disobedience movement -1930
In 1930, Gandhiji launched the Civil Disobedience
In 1929 INC adopted ‘Poorna Swaraj’ (complete
independence) as its goal at the Lahore session
of the congress under the Presidentship of Nehru.
It also decided for launching a Civil Disobedi-
At midnight on 31 December 1929, Jawaharlal
Nehru unfurled the newly adopted Tricolour Flag
of freedom on the bank of river Ravi.
26 January 1930 was fixed as the first indepen-
The Civil Disobedience Movement was started
by Gandhiji with his famous Dandi March
He started his Salt Satyagraha or the Dandi
March on the morning of 12 March 1930 with a
band of 78 volunteers. It was 385km (240 miles)
Journey from Sabarmati Ashram at Ahmedabad
to Dandi on the West Coast. On April 5, at 6 in the
morning Gandhiji and his volunteers picked up
Salt lying on the sea-shore. (Sarojini Naidu, at
this hailed Gandhiji as ‘‘Law breaker’’)
In Tamil Nadu C. Rajagopalachari led a Salt
March from Trichirapalli to Vedaranyam on the
Tanjore Coast. He was arrested on 30 April, 1930.
In Malabar K. Kelappan, the hero of the Vaikkom
Satyagraha, walked from Calicut to Payyannur to
break the Salt law.
Gandhiji was arrested on May 5, 1930. After his
arrest his place was taken by Abbas Tyabji and
after the arrest of Abbas leadership passed on to
Lord Irwin, the then Viceroy called the decision
of Gandhi as a ‘Kindergarten stage’ of revolu-
Irwin called Gandhi’s breaking of salt law as a
‘Storm in a tea cup’
‘Salt suddenly became a mysterious word, a word
of power’’ These words were spoken by Nehru
on the occassion of Salt Satyagraha.
On 18, April 1930 Chittagong Armoury was raided
by Surya sen.
On 23 April 1930, Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan’sexampundit.in
Khudai Khidmatgar activated the NWFP leading
to rioting where the Hindu Gahrwal Rifles refused
to fire on Muslim rioters.
Darshana Salt Works (21 may) Satyagraha led
by Sarojini Naidu, Imam Saheb and Manilal
Governors Generals of India
1772-1785 ………………………..Warren Hastings
1786 – 1793 ……………………….. Lord Cornwallis
1793 – 1798 …………………………… Sir Joh Shore
1798 – 1805 ………………………… Lord Wellesley
1807- 1813 ……………………………… Lord Minto
1813 -1823 …………………………..Lord Hastings
1823 – 1828 ………………………….. Lord Amherst
1828 – 1835 ……………….. Lord William Bentinck
1835 – 1842 ………………….. Baron Ellenborough
1842 – 1844 ……………… William Wilberfore Bird
1844 – 1848 …………………………. Lord Hardinge
1848 – 1856 ………………………… Lord Dalhousie
1856 – 1858 ………………………….. Lord Canning
Viceroys of British India
1858 – 1862 ………………………….. Lord Canning
1862 – 1863 ………………………… 8th Earl Elgin I.
1863 ……………………………… Sir Robert Napier
1863 – 1864 ……………….. Sir William T. Dension
1864 – 1869 …………………………… Earl of Mayo
1872 – ……………………………. Sir John Strachey
1872 – 1876 …………………… Baron North Brook
1876 – 1880 …………………………….. Lord Lytton
1880-1884 ………………………………. Lord Ripon
1884 -1888 …………………………… Lord Dufferin
1888-1894 ………………………..Lord Lansdowne
1894 -1899 ……………………………. Lord Elgin II
1899 – 1905 ……………………………. Lord Curzon
1905 – 1910 …………………………… Lord Minto II
1910 – 1916 ………………………. Lord Hardinge II
1916 – 1921 ………………………. Lord Chelmsford
1921 -1926 …………………………… Lord Reading
1926-1931 ……………………………….. Lord Irwin
1931 -1936 ………………………. Lord Wellington
1936 -1942 ……………………….. Lord Linlithgow
1942-1947 ……………………………… Lord Wavell
1947 (March 13 – August 14) ……………………..
…………………………… Lord Louis Mounbatten
Governors – Generals of Indian Union
1947 (August 15)
1948 (June 20) ……….. Lord Louis Mountbatten
1950 Jan. 25 ………………….. C. Rajagopalachari
One notable feature of the Civil Disobedience
Movement of Gandhiji was wide participation of
Round Table Conferences
The British government organised the First Round
Table Conference at London to discuss the Simon
The first Round Table Conference was from 12
Nov. 1930 to 19 January 1931.
British Prime Minister Ramsay Mac Donald pre-
sided over the First Round Table Conference.
The first Round Table Conference was attended
by Tej Bahadur Supru B.R. Ambedkar, Muhammed
Shafi, M.A. Jinnah etc. Gandhiji did not partici-
pate in it.
As a result of the Gandhi Irwin pact (1931) Con-
gress decided to stop the Civil Disobedience
Gandhi-Irwin Pact was signed on 5th March 1931.
The Second Round Table Conference started in
London on 7 September 1931. It was attended by
107 Indians including Gandhiji.
The Second Round Table Conference was a fail-
ure. So the Civil Disobedience movement was re-
started on 3rd January 1932.
Sarojini Naidu participated in the Second Round
The Communal Award was announced on Au-
gust 16, 1932 by British Prime Minister Ramsay
at Bombay. By this the separate electorate for de-
By the Communal Award minority communities
were given Separate Communal Electroates.
The Communal Award was opposed by Gandhiji
and he decided to go on fast unto death.
The Third and the last Round Table Conference
was held between Nov. 17 and December 24, 1932.
The Third Round Table Conference agreed upon
certain broad principles for the future constitu-
tional set up: Which were published later as ‘white
paper’ (March 1933)
The Poona Pact was signed on 25 September 1932at Bombay. By this the separate electorate for de-exampundit.in
pressed classes was abolished.
Harijan upliftment now became Gandhiji’s main
concern. He started an All India Anti-Untouch-
ability League in September 1932 and the weekly
Harijan in January 1933. The January 8, 1933 was
observed as ‘‘Temple Entry Day’’.
Only Indian to participate all the three Round Table
conference was B.R. Ambedkar.
It was above all Jawaharlal Nehru who imported a
socialist vision to the national movement.
At the Lahore session in 1929 Nehru introduced
The Congress Socialist Party was founded in
October 1934 at Bombay under the leadership of
Jaya Prakash Narayan, Acharya Narendra Dev
and Minoo Masani
The CSP supported the Quit India Movement.
Socialist ideas led to the emergence of Commu-
nist Party of India (CPI) and the Congress So-
Towards the end of 1920 M.N. Roy and other In-
dian emigres at Tashkant formed a communist
party of India. In India on 1st September, 1924
Famous Conspiracy Cases
Satyabhakta in a press note announced the for-
Case Date Accused
Nasik 1909-10 Vinayak Savarkar
Alipore 1908 Aurobindo Ghosh
Hawrah case 1910 Jatin Mukharjee
Dacca Case 1910 Pulin Das
Delhi case 1915 Amirchand, Awad
Lahore case 1929 – 30 Bhagat Singh, Rajguru
Banaras case 1915 – 16 Sachindranath Sanyal
Kakori case 1925 Rama Prasad Bismil and
Bihari and Bal Mukund
mation of the Communist Party of India with him-
self as the Secretary.
as a protest against Britains decision to drag In-
In December 1928 the All India Worker and Peas-
ants Party came into existence.
The government declared CPI illegal in 1934.
Ram Prasad Bismil, Jogesh Chatterjee and
Sachindranath Sanyal founded the Hindustan
Republican Associations (HRA) in 1924, whose
object was to establish a Federal Republic.
On 9 August 1925 ten revolutionaries robbed the
8-Downtrain at Kakori, near Lucknow. This is
known as Kakori Conspiracy.
HRA became Hindustan Socialist Republican
Association in 1928.
Bhagat Singh and B.K. Dutt threw bomb on the
Central Legislative Assembly against the passage
of the Public Safety Bill and the Trade Disputes
Chittagong Armoury Raid was planned by
Suryasen and his associates on 18 April 1930.
In March 1929, a group of 31 labour leaders were
tried in Meerat Conspiracy Case.
Provisional Government of Free India was set up
at Kabul in 1915 by Mahendrapratap and
Death of Jitin Das, a revolutionary in jail on the
64th day of a hunger strike was in 1929.
Execution of Bhagatsingh Sukh Dev and RajGuru
by the British was on March 23, 1931.
Death of Chandrasekhar Azad in 1931 in an en-
counter with police at Allahabad.
Government of India Act (1935)
The government of India Act 1935 proposed a
government based on Federal System.
It ensured complete autonomy
First general election as per the Act of 1935 was
held in 1937, Congress got the majority.
But all the Congress Ministers resigned in 1939as a protest against Britains decision to drag In-dia into the Second World War.
August offer (1940)
The famous proclamation made by Lord
Linlithgow on 8 August 1940 is known a August
This ensured to give dominion status and free-
dom to frame constitution based on representa-
Cripps Mission 1942
The mission under Stafford Cripps (the Lord Privy
Seal and a member of the British War Cabinet) ar-
rived in India on March 22, 1942 to find out a politi-
cal formula for transfer of power to Indians.
The main proposals of the mission was to grant
Dominion status to India at the end of the Sec-
ond World War and setting up of an interim gov-
ernment to administer the country in all matters
The Congress and the League rejected the offer
Gandhiji called the cripps offer ‘‘a Post Dated
Cheque on a Crashing Bank’’.
Quit India Movement (1942)
The failure of the Cripps Mission was the major
reason for the beginning of Quit India Movement.
The All India Congress Committee met at Bombay
on August 8, 1942 passed the famous Quit India
The Movement began on 9 August 1942.
On the occasion of the Quit India Movement
Gandhiji gave his famous call of ‘Do or Die’.
The term Quit India was coined by an American
Journalist while interviewing Gandhiji.
‘‘Quit India’’, ‘‘Bharat Chodo’’ ‘Do or Die’ these
were the powerful slogans of Quit India move-
Muslim League new slogan during the Movement
was ‘‘Divide and Quit’’.
C. Rajagopalachari evolved, in 1944, a formula
called the CR Formula to end the struggle be-
tween the Congress and Muslim League.
Lord Wavell, the then Governor General offered
the famous Wavellplan in 1945 at Shimla.
Royal Indian Navy Mutiny (1946)
On 18thFebruary 1946 1,100 naval ratings of the
Signal School of HMIS Talwar (ship) in Bombay
went on strike against racial discrimination regard-
ing pay and food.
BC Dutt was arrested for writing ‘Quit India’ on
Both Congress and Muslim league did not help
Cabinet Mission (1946)
The British Government headed by Attlee of the
Labour Party, appointed a Cabinet Mission con-
sisting of Pethic Lawrence, Stafford Cripps and
Cabinet Mission proposed a federal government
for the whole of India.
Elections to the Constituent Assembly were held
under the Cabinet Mission Plan, in 1946.
Cabinet Mission arrived in India in 1946 March
The Mission was headed by Lord Pethwick
It provided an interim government during the time
of Lord Wavell
It also provided for the establishment of a
Constitutent Assembly to frame a constitution
On 2 September 1946 an Interim Government
headed by Nehru came to power.
It was a 12 member Ministry.Three members were
Liakqat Ali Khan was the Finance Minister in the
The Muslim League proclaimed ‘Direct Action
Day’ on 16 August 1946 with battle cry of
Pakisthan’, ‘Larke Langa Pakistan’.
The Muslim League proclaimed September 2, 1946
as a ‘Day of Mourning’.
Communal riots broke out in Naokhali from No-
vember 7, 1946 to March 2, 1947 Gandhiji toured
in these 49 villages.
December 3 – 6, 1946 The British Prime Minister
Clement Atlee summoned Jawaharlal Nehru,
Baldev Singh, MuhammedAli Jinnah and Liaqat
Ali Khan for an extraordinary conference at 10
Dawning Street London.
Constituent Assembly: The constituent Assem-
bly started its session on December 9, 1946 in the
Library of the Council Chamber without the par-
ticipation of the League.
Rajendra Prasad was elected as the President of
the Constituent Assembly.
Mountbatten Plan (1947)
Mountbatten arrived in India on March 22, 1947.
Mountbatten became the last Viceroy of India,
the last Governor General of India and first gov-
ernor general of free India.
Mountbatten proposed a plan to divide India.
Clement Atlee announced the plan in the House
of Commons on 2 June 1947, hence it came to be
known as 3rd June Plan.
Work of the demarcation of the boundaries was done by Radcliff . Hence the line is known as
The 3rd June Plan was given effect by the In-
dian Independence Act 1947.
The dominion of Pakistan was inaugurated in Karachi on 14th August 1947. India became free
on 15th 1947.
Integration of States
The integration of Princely States was done by Sardar Patel with the assistance of V.P. Menon.
By August 1947, all the 554 States, with the exception only of Hyderabad, Kashmir and Junagarh
acceded to the union.
On 26th October the Maharaja of Kashmir, Harisingh signed the ‘‘Instrument of Accession’’
and Sheik Abdulla is known as ‘Lion of Kash-mir’.
The Nizam of Hyderabad signed the agreementto join the Indian Union through police action in
Indian National Army (INA)
The idea of Indian National Army was first conceived by Mohan Singh at Malaya, an officer in
British Indian Army.
The first division of INA was formed in Septem-
ber 1942 with Japanese help.
Subash Chandra Bose began to associate with INA by July 1943. The command was handed over by Rash Bihari Bose
To the Indians Subash Chandra Bose said ‘you give me blood I will give you freedom’..
Subash Chandra Bose set up two INA headquarters at Rangoon and Singapore.
The women’s regiment called the ‘Rani Jhansi’
regiment was under Captain Lekshmi Segal.
He was the first to address Gandhiji as the ‘Father of the nation’’ in his appeal on the ‘Azad Hind Radio’ Singapore.
In may 1944 INA captured Mowdok and hoisted the tri-colour flag on Indian soil.
The Japanese government handed over the Andaman and Nickobar island to him which wererenamed ‘Shaheed and Swaraj’ islands respectively.
The INA troops surrendered before the British
army in 1945.
The British Government of India charged INA soldiers of waging war against the king. The tri-
als were held in the Red Fort in Delhi.
The first three accused were capt. P.K. Sehgal ,Capt. Shah Nawaz and Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon.
Subash Chandra Bose was born at Cuttack in Orissa.
He appeared for the Indian Civil Service in 1920 and passed with merit, but resigned before com-
pleting his probation in April 1921, he joined the Congress and plunged into the national movement.
He was unanimously elected President at the Haripura Congress session in 1938 and was re-
elected for the second term at the Tripuri session in 1939, defeating Dr. Pattabhi S
who was supported by Gandhiji.
He resigned the Presidentship of INC in April 1939 and founded All India Forward Block and the Kisan Sabha.
But in January 1941, he escaped out of India and reached Berlin (Germany) from where he arrived in Singapore in 1943.
Bose was popularly known as the ‘Netaji’
He was reportedly killed in an air cash over Taipei,
Taiwan on August 18, 1945.
A.N. Mukherjee Commission enquired about the mysterious disappearance of Subash Chandra Bose.
The Viceroys of India
Lord Canning (1856 – 62)
Revolt of 1857.
Queen Victoria’s Proclamation and passing of the Indian Act of 1858.
Withdrawal of the ‘Doctrine of Lapse’ in 1859, which was passed by Lord Dalhousie.
Foundation of the Universities of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras in 1857.
Indigo Revolt in Bengal in 1859-60.
White Mutiny by the European troops of East India Company in 1859.
Bahadurshah II was sent to Rangoon
Enactment of Indian Penalcode.
Indian Councils Act of 1861.
Enactment of Indian Code of Criminal Procedure.
Lord Elgin (1862 – 63)
Supressed the Wahabi Movement
Sir John Lawrence (1864 – 69)
Famine commission was constituted.
Followed a policy of rigid non-interference in Afghanistan called policy of masterly inactivity.
Set up highcourts in Calcutta Bombay and Madras (1865).
Lord Mayo (1869-72)
Wahabi and Kuka movements were active.
Mayo was murdered
Lord Lytton (1876-80)
Passing of the Royal Titles Act of 1876 and the assumption of the title empress of India (Qaiser-i-
hind) by Queen Victoria.
Holding of Delhi Durbar in 1877.
Passing of the Vernacular Press Act of 1878.
Passing of the Arms Act of 1878.
Lowering of maximum age from 21 years to 19 years for the Civil Services Examination, an attempt to prevent Indians from entering Civil Services.
Appointment of first Famine Commission under Sir Richard Strachy.
Started Statutory Civil Service.
Second Anglo Afghan war in 1878.
Lord Ripon (1880-84)
Passing of the first Factory Act in 1881 for the welfare of child labour.
Repeal of Vernacular Press Act in 1882.
Foundation of the Local Self Government (1882)
Holding of the first decennial and regular census in 1881 which put the total population at 254 mil-
Appointment of an Education Commission under Sir William Hunter in 1882.
The Ilbert bill controversy.
Famine code of 1883.
Lord Dufferin (1884 – 88)
Foundation of Indian National Congress
Third Anglo Burmese war
Commented on the Congress being a microscopic minority
Lord Curzon (1899-1905)
Creation of a new province called the North West Frontier Province.
Appointment of Universities Commission in 1902 under Sir Thoma Releigh and passing of Indian
Universities Act 1904.
Partition of Bengal
Lord Hardinge (1910-1916)
Coronation durbar in 1911 at Delhi in honour of George V
A separate state of Bihar and Orissa was created in 1911.
India’s capital was decided to shift to Delhi in 1911 and shifted in 1912.
Kamagata Maru incident.
1916, Saddler committee on Univerisities appointed.
Tilak founded Home Rule League.
Lord Chelmsford (1916 – 21)
Foundation of women’s university at Poona.
Hunter Commission on Jalianwala Bagh Massacre.
Chamber of Princes established in 1921.
Home Rule League founded by Annie Besant.
Third Afghan war started.
Aligarh Muslim University was founded in 1920.
Lord Reading (1921-26)
Foundation of Rashtriya Swayam Sevak Sangh by K.B. Hedgewar at Nagpur in 1925.
Beginning of Indianisation of the officers cadre of the Indian Army.
Railway Budget was separated from General Budget in 1921.
Hilton Young Committee on currency was appointed in 1926.
Viswa Bharati University started by Rabindra Nath Tagore.
Train Robbery at Kakori.
Lord Irwin (1926-31)
Popularly known as Christian Viceroy.
Simon Commission arrives in Bombay.
Meerut conspiracy case.
Gandhi started his Dandi March.
Chitagong Armoury Raid.
First Round Table Conference.
Lord Willington (1931-36)
Communal Award in 1932 by Ramsay MacDonald.
Third Round Table Conference in 1932.
White Paper on Political reforms in India was published in 1933.
Burma was separated from British Empire in 1935.
Lord Linlithgow (1936-43)
August Offer by the Viceroy in which he declared dominion status as the ultimate goal of British policy in India.
In 1940 individual Civil Disobedience Movement was started.
1942 Cripps Mission came.
Congress starts Quit India Movement.
Lord Wavell (1943-47)
Wavell Plan, Shimla conference Congress represented by Maulana Azad
RIN Mutiny (1946)
Interim Government was formed (September 2,1946)
Prime Minister of Britain Clement Atlee announced to give independence to India by June 1948.
Cabinet Mission 1946.
16th August 1946, Muslim League begins ‘Direct Action day’.
Lord Mountbatten (1947-48)
His plan to make India free on August 15 1947 is also known as June 3rd Plan.
First Governor General of free India
First Indian Governor General.
Father of Our Nation
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, called Mahatma, is the father of our nation.
He was born on 2 October 1869 at Porbandar in Gujarat as the son of Diwan Karamchand and his fourth wife ‘Putilibai’.
In 1883, at the age of 14, he married Kasthurba Later he went to England to study law.
In 1893 he went to South Africa to practice law.
After his studies in England Gandhiji began his practice as a lawyer in Bombay and Rajcot.
He was subjected to racial discrimination and organised Natal Indian Congress in 1894. There he started a weekly, Indian opinion 1904.
Gandhiji experimented the weapon Satyagraha for the first time in South Africa in September 1906 to protest against the Asiatic Ordinance issued against the Indians in Transval
Gandhiji’s first imprisonment was in 1908 at Johannesberg in South Africa.
In 1899 during the Boer war Gandhiji organised Indian Ambulance Corps for the British.
Gandhiji was humiliated and ousted from Peter Marits Burg Railway Station in South Africa.
Gandhiji became a Brahmachari in 1906.
Gandhiji started Tolstoy Farm South Africa in 1910.
Gandhiji started the Foenix Settlement in Durban.
Gandhian Era in Indian politics is from 1915 -1948.
He returned to India on 9th January 1915, leaving South Africa for ever. January 9 is observed as ‘Pravasi Bharatiya Divas’ to commemorate this.
Gandhiji’s first Satyagraha in India was for the right of Indigo workers in Champaran in 1917.
Gandhiji’s first fast was in 1918 in connection with the strike of mill workers in Ahmedabad.
He started the Satyagrahasrama on the banks of Sabarmati river in Ahmedabad in 1917.
In 1918 he started two weeklies – Young India in English and Navjeevan in Gujarati.
Gandhiji abandoned his title Kaiser -i-Hind in protest against Jallianwalabagh Massacre (1919)
Gandhijis first National Movement was organised against the Rowlat Act in 1919.
Gandhiji launched the Non-Co-operation Movement on August 1, 1920 which caused the violent incident at Chauri Chaura in UP. This incident initiated Gandhiji to suspend the movement in 1922.
Gandhiji renounced worldly pleasures and be came a symbol of halfnaked villager in 1920.
The only Congress session presided over by Gandhiji was the one which held at Belgaum in 1924.
Gandhiji started his historic Dandi March on 12 March 1930 related to the Salt Satyagraha.
Gandhiji partcipated in the Second Round Table Conference in London in 1931 August.
With the aim of eradicating untouchability Gandhiji founded the All India Harijan Samaj in 1932.
Gandhiji started his journey for Harijan upliftment from the Wardha Ashram in Maharashtra.
Gandhiji called low class people as ‘Harijan’ which means ‘sons of God’.
He started the weekly Harijan in 1933.
Gandhi-Irwin pact was signed on 5 march 1931.
Gandhiji was associated with the Vaikom and Guruvayur Sathyagraha in Kerala.
Gandhiji called the Temple Entry Proclamation a wonder of the Modern Age.
Pattabhi Sitaramayya Gandhiji’s candidate for the Presidentship of INC was defeated by Subash Chandra Bose.
Gandhiji called Subhah Chandra Bose the‘Palriots’, Patriot
Winston Churchil called Gandhiji a ‘‘Half naked Seditious Fakir.
The name ‘Gurudev’ was given to Tagore by Gandhiji
Tagore called Gandhiji ‘Mahatma’.
‘Wardha’ scheme of education was the basic education policy formulated by Gandhiji.
In 1940 Gandhiji started Individual Satyagraha and selected Vinoba Bhave and Nehru for that.
In 1942 August 9 Gandhiji started the Quit India Movement and gave the call ‘Do or Die’.
Gandhiji called the Cripps Mission (1942) ‘‘a post dated cheque on a drowning bank’’.
Gandhiji was assassinated by Nadhuram Vinayak Godse on 30 January 1948 at the Birla house in Delhi. He died at 5 : 17 pm. ‘He Ram, He Ram’ was his last words.
Godse used an Italian Beritta Pistol to shoot at Gandhiji.
Gandhiyum Godseyum is a book written by N.K. Krishnavarier.
‘Mem Nadhuram Godse Bolthai’ is a play written by Pradeep Dalvi to humiliate Gandhi.
After the assassination, The R.S.S was banned in 1948 February 4.
Narayan Dathathrya Apte was hanged to death along with Godse on the Gandhi Assassination case.
French Novelist who wrote the biography of Gandhiji was Romain Rolland.
Medalim Slaiduin a British woman became a follower Gandhi and came to be known as Meera Ben.
The original autobiography of Gandhiji written in Gujarathi language was ‘Sathya na Karogo’.
Liberty or Death written by Patrick French deals with antogonism in Gandhis life.
Gandhiji called his hanging clock my little dictator.
‘Ente Gurunathan’ poem written by Vallathol Narayana Menon speaks about Gandhiji.
‘That’s my mother’ Gandhiji said these words about Bhagavatgita.
Gandhiji’s political guru was Gopalakrishna Gokhale.
Gandhi’s prisoner is a book written by Uma Dupfeli Mistri , daughter of Gandhis son, Manilal.
Harilal, Manilal, Ramdas and Devdas were Gandhijis four sons.
‘I follow Mahatma’ is a book written by K.M.Munshi.
‘Unto This Last’ of John Ruskin greately influenced Gandhiji
R.K. Narayan wrote ‘Waiting for the Mahatma’.
‘A week with Gandhi, ‘Gandhi and Stalin and Life of Mahatma Gandhi are the books written by Fischer.
Gandhiji grandson Thushar Gandhi led the second Dandi March from Marh 12 – April 17, 2005on the 75th anniversary of Dandi March.
Gandhiji’s autobiography ‘‘My Experiments with Truth’ was written in 1922 while he was in Jail. It describes his life from 1869 to 1921.
It was translated into English by Mahadev Desai.
Leon Tolstoy is considered as the spiritual guru of Gandhiji.
One of the great dreams of Gandhiji was the establishment of Grama Swaraj. He said ‘‘India livesin villages’’. He started Sewagram Ashram on 30 April 1936.
Gandhiji said ‘‘Non violence is not one form it is the only form of direct action’’.
Gandhiji once sarcastically (humorously) called jail ‘‘His Majesty’s Hotel’’.
”Generations to come it may scarce believe that such a one as this ever in flesh and blood walked upon this earth”, Einstein said about Gandhiji.
‘‘Truth and Non-violence are my Gods’’ Gandhiji
Untouchability is a crime against God and Mankind Gandhiji.
‘‘Swaraj for me means freedom for the meanest of our countrymen’’ – Gandhiji
‘‘The light has gone out of our lives and there is darkness everywhere’’ Nehru on the death of Gandhiji.
‘‘Non-violence is the law of our species as violence is the law of the brute’’ Gandhiji
‘‘Indian culture is neither Hindu, Islam, nor any other wholly. It is a fusion of all’ – Gandhiji
‘‘Non Co-operation with evil is as much a duty as co-operation with good’’ – Gandhiji
‘‘My only hope lies in prayer and answer to prayer’’ – Gandhiji
Rabindranath Tagore was born at Calcutta in West Bengal as the son of Maharshi Devendranath Tagore and Sarda Devi. One of Rabindranath’s brothers, Satyendranth Tagore was the first Indian to get selcted for the ICS in 1864.
In 1901 Tagore established a school at Shant Niketan which finally developed into the world famous University of ViswaBharati in 1921.
In 1913,Tagore’s Gitanjali was selected for the Nobel prize for Literature.
In 1912 Tagore Published Jana Gana Mana (Now India’s National Anthem)
The National anthem is composed in the Raga, ‘Sankarabharanam’
The English translation of the national anthem is ‘‘The morning song of India’’.
National anthem was first sung at the Calcutta session of INC (1911)
India accepted it as our national anthem on 24 January 1950.
‘Bharat Vidhata’ was the first name of National anthem.
National anthem was first published in the book ‘Tatvabodhini’.
Tagore also wrote the national anthem of Bangladesh ‘ Amar Sonar Bengla’.
In 1915, Tagore was awarded Knighthood by the British Monarch George V, but he surrendered itin 1919 as a protest against the Jalianwallabagh Massacre.
Gandhiji called Tagore ‘Gurudev’.
For Tagore, the great objective of education was ‘to know man and to make oneself known to man’’.
‘Jeevan Smriti’ is the autobiography of Tagore.
‘Gora’, ‘Raja and Rani’ ‘Rajarishi’, ‘Kabooliwala’ etc are the famous novels of Tagore.
‘Purabhi’, ‘The cycle of the spring’ ‘The evening song’ ‘The morning song’ etc are the other fa-
mous works of Tagore.
Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964)
Jawaharlal Nehru was the son of Motilal Nehru and Swarupa Rani.
‘Jawahar’ means Jewel.
He was born in 1886 November 14.
Vijayalekshmi Pandit and Krishna Harthising were the sisters of Nehru.
Nehru became a member of Theosophical Society at the age of 13.
He went to London in 1905 and joined the Haro Public School, Then Trinity College in Cambridge and finally at the Inner Temple.
He returned India in 1912 and started practice at the Alahabad High Court.
Nehru attended the Bankipore Congress Session in 1912.
He met Gandhi in 1916 at the Lucknow session.
Nehru became the General Secretary of INC in 1923.
Nehru became the president of INC for the first time 1929. Poorna Swaraj Resolution was passed at this session (Lahore).
Nehru became the President of INC for the largest number of times Lahore (1929), Lucknow (1935), Faizpur (1936), New Delhi (1951), Hyderabad (1953) and Kalyan (1954).
Nehru started a newspaper called ‘National Herald’.
Nehru headed the interim ministry formed in 1946 September.
He became the first Prime Minister of India after independence in 1947.
Nehru has the largest term as India’s Prime Minister.
Important works of Nehru are ‘Glimpses of World History’,‘The Unity of India’, ‘The Discovery of India’ ‘Bunch of Old letters’.
‘‘An Autobiography’’ is the autobiography of Nehru.
‘‘………. At the stroke of the mid night hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom……….. these are the words of Nehru.
Nehru’s main contribution to the evolution of Indias foreign policy was the acceptance of non-
Non-alignment meant taking independent decisions on international issues with a sense of neu-
Nehru visited China in 1954, both the countries signed the Panch Sheel.
‘I want the cultures of all lands to be brought to my house as freely as possible’ He said
The expression ‘‘Tryst with destiny’ was first used by Jawaharlal Nehru on the Occasion of India attaining freedom.
There will be no freedom in this country or in the world so long as a single human being is unfree. Jawaharlal Nehru.
It is not so much the existence of a nation that counts but what the nation that counts but what the nation does during various periods of existence Nehru.
Nehru was awarded the Bharat Ratna in 1955.
Nehru got placed in Indial Postal Stamp in 1964.
India government began to distribute International Award for International understanding in
1965 U Thant got it for the first time.
First woman to get the award was Mother Theresa (1969)
Nehru died on 27 may 1964 at the age of 75.
Lord Dufferin : Congres was a microscopic minority.
Lord Curzon : Congress was ‘tottering to its fall’ and one of his greatest ambition in India was ‘‘to assist it (congress) a peaceful demise’.
Charles Napier: ‘We have no right to seize Sind, yet we shall do so and a very advantageous, use- ful humane piece of rascality it will be ’’.
Thomas Roe : ‘‘I know these people are best treated with the sword in one hand and the caducean in the other.’’
Nabin Chandra Sen : ‘‘The battle of Plassey was followed by a night of eternal gloom for India’’.
John Sullivan : ‘Our system acts very much like a sponge drawing up all the good things from the banks of the Ganges and Squeezing them down on the banks Thames’
Tipu Sultan – ‘Better to die like a Soldier, than to live a miserable dependent on the infidels in the list of their pensioned Rajas and nobles.
Peter the Great of Russia ‘‘Bear in mind that the commerce of India is the commerce of the world’’.
Cornwallis ‘‘Every native of Hindustan is corrupt’’.
William Bentinck : ‘‘The misery hardly find a parallel in history of commerce, the bones of the cotton weavers were bleaching the plains of India’’.
Rani of Jhansi – ‘‘With our own hands we shall
not let our Azadshahi burry’’.
J.L. Nehru : ‘‘British power became the guardian and upholder of many and evil custom and practice which it other wise condemned.’’
Cornwallis : ‘‘One third of Bengal has been transformed into a jungle inhabitated only by wildbeats’’
A.O. Hume – ‘‘A safety valve for the escape of great and growing forces generate by our ac-
tion was urgently needed’’.
Dada Bhai Naroji : Regarding law and orders ‘‘pray strike on the back but dont strike on the belly’’.
Dufferin : Branded the national leaders as ‘‘Disloyal Babus’ ‘‘Seditious Brahmins’ and ‘‘Violent Villains’.
Swami Vivekananda ‘‘For our own motherland a junction of the two great system Hinduism and Islam is the only hope.
Swami Vivekananda ‘‘We are just don’t touchists Our religion is our kitchen our god is the cooking and our religion is don’t touch me, I am holy. If this goes on for a century, everyone of us will be in a lunatic asylum.
Aurobindo Ghosh : – ‘‘Political freedom is the life breath of a nation’’.
Tilak : ‘‘Swaraj is my birth right and I will have it.
Gandhiji on the eve of Dandi March ‘‘Sedition has become my religion’’.
Ram Krishna Paramahamsa ‘‘ God is of no use to the hungry belly’
Swami Vivekananda ‘‘Christianity wins its prosperity by cutting the throats of its fellowmen.
INDIA AFTER INDEPENDENCE
India – Pak Wars
The major cause of the India – Pak wars was the Kashmir problem.
On September 1, 1965 Pakistan started attack on the border and invaded Chhamb and Dewa re-
On September 11, UN Secretary General U-Thant reached to talk on cease fire.
After the battle, Tashkent agreement was signed under the mediation of Russia.
Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Sastri and Pakistan President Ayub Khan signed the agree-
On December 2 The Border Security Force was formed.
Lal Bahadur Sastri died at Tashkent on 11 January 1966.
The deplomacy of Sastri was the major source behind India’s victory in the 1965 Indo-Pak war.
The Second Indo-Pak war was in 1971. After the war Bangladesh became an independent country.
The agreement signed after the 1971 war was the Simla Agreement.
Simla Agreement was signed by Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and Pakistan Prime Minister Sulfiker Ali Bhuto in 1972.
The Kargil war in 1999 was against the terrorist
usurpation into Kashmir from Pakistan.
Kargil military operation of India was known as
Former Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee conducted the famous Lahore Bus Journey in 1999
The Kargil war officially ended on 26 July 1999.
Boundary line between India and Pakistan is Radcliff line.
The Lahore declaration was signed between A.B. Vajpayee and Nawaz Sherif.
Military operation conducted by India on Pakistan 1948 was known as Operation Sojila.
The operation in which Indian army captured Siachin was known as Operation Meghdoot.
India and Pakistan signed the Indus River Water Agreement in 1960.
* Nehru and Chinese Prime Minister Chau Enlai established bilateral friendly relation signing the Panchsheel in 1954.
* But giving asylium to the Dalai Lama of Tibet (1954) provocated China.
* China attacked India by crossing the Mac Mohan line on September 8, 1962.
* On October 19 Chinese made a massive attack.
* On October 26 Government declared Emergency and Defence of India Ordinance.
* Keeping view of the Chinese aggression the Gold Bond Scheme was declared.
* In November 1962 the National Defence Council was set up.
* On Nov. 10, the Chinese declared a Unilateral withdrawal.
* In 2005 China removed Sikkhim from Chinese map and accepted it Indias part.
* In 2006, Two countries agreed to open the Nathula pass (Sikkim) after a lapse of four decades
Liberation of Pondicherry and Goa
* Goa was in the hands of Portuguese from 1510 AD onwards.
* The Liberation Army captured Dadra, Nagarhaveli on 22 July 1954.
* Goa, Daman and Diu were liberated from the Portuguese in 1964.
* Pondicherry was under the French Since 1946 there were freedom struggle in Pondicherry.
* The legal hand over of Pondicherry was in 1962.
* Malayalam speaking Mahi, Telegu speaking yanam and Tamil speaking Karakkal are the parts of Pondicherry.
* Pondicherry’s new name is Puthussery.
Nuclear Experiments in India
* Nuclear researches in India were lead by Homi J.Bhaba.
* Council for Scientific Industrial Research Insti-
tute was formed in 1942.
* Indias first Nuclear Experiment was on 18th May 1974.
* First Nuclear Experiment of India was code named as ‘‘Buddha Smiles’. It was during the period of Indira Gandhi as Prime Minister.
* It was conducted at the Pokhran Desert in Rajasthan.
* Uranium was used in the process.
* It was lead by Dr. H.N. Setna and Dr. Raja Ramanna.
* Second Nuclear experiment was in 1998.
* It was code named a ‘Operation Shakti’ or ‘Buddha Smiles again’’.
* Pokhran is in the Jaisalmer district in Rajasthan.
* Second experiment was conducted during the term of Atal Bihari Vajpayee.
Ante Sikh Riots
* In 1984, General K. Sundarji, Commander-in-chief with the army besieged the Golden Temple in Operation Blue Star on June 5.90 soldiers and 712 Sikh extremists including Bhindranwale.
* The operation was done by 15th Cavalry Regiment of Indian Army.
* As a sequel to the Operation Blue Star. Indira Gandhi was gunned down and killed by her own security
guards, Sub Inspector Beant Singh and Constable Satwant Singh on October 31, morning.
* In the Ante Sikh riots more than 3000 sikhs died.
* Congress president Sonia Gandhi officially apologised the Community in 1998.
* Justice Ranganath Mishra Commission appointed in 1985 submitted the report in 1986.
* Kapur Mithal Committee (1987) Jane Banerjee Committee Potti Rosha Committee (1990) Jane Agarwal Committee (1990) Dhillan Committee (1985), Narula Committee (1993), Nanavati Commission (2004) etc enquired about the incident.
Demolition of Babri Masjid
* On 6th December 1992, the B.J.P. and VHP organised a huge rally of over 20,000 volunteers at the site of Babri Masjid. The BJP Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, Kalyan Singh assured to the Supreme court that the mosque would be protected. But the mosque was hammered down.
* The Central Government banned VHP, RSS, BajrangDal and Jamaat -e-Islami. The Kalyan Singh government was dismissed.
* Babri Masjid was constructed by Babar’s governor Mir Sakhi at Ayodhya (U.P).
* Narasimha Rao was the Prime Minister when the Babary Masjid was demolished.
* Ayodhya 6th December, 1992 is a book written by NarasimhaRao,published Posthumously.