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Glossary -Biology Terms

1-Bacteria – Single-cell microscopic organisms which lack a true nucleus. They represent one of the three domains.

2-A biome is a formation of plants and animals that have common characteristics due to similar climates and can be found over a range of continents.

3-Biomass is biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms.As an energy source, biomass can either be used directly via combustion to produce heat, or indirectly after converting it to various forms of biofuel.

4-Biotechnology is the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or “any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use”

5-The blastocyst is a structure formed in the early development of mammals. It possesses an inner cell mass (ICM) which subsequently forms the embryo. The outer layer of the blastocyst consists of cells collectively called the trophoblast.

6-Bowman’s capsule (or the Bowman capsule, capsula glomeruli, or glomerular capsule) is a cup-like sac at the beginning of the tubular component of a nephron in the mammalian kidney that performs the first step in the filtration of blood to form urine

7-Bionics – Application of biological methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology. Also known as biomimetics, biognosis, biomimicry, or bionical creativity engineering

8-Bacteriophage – Virus that infects and multiplies within bacteria.

9-Basal body – (synonymous with basal granule, kinetosome, and in older cytological literature with blepharoplast) is an organelle formed from a centriole, and a short cylindrical array of microtubules.

10-Bile or gall is a dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine. In humans, bile is produced continuously by the liver (liver bile), and stored and concentrated in the gallbladder (gallbladder bile).

11-In biology, fission is the division of a cell (or body, population, or species) into two or more parts and the regeneration of those parts into separate cells (bodies, populations, or species). Binary fission produces two separate cells, populations, species, etc.

12-Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.Biochemistry is closely related to molecular biology, the study of the molecular mechanisms by which genetic information encoded in DNA is able to result in the processes of life.

13-Bioinformatics  is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools for understanding biological data. As an interdisciplinary field of science, bioinformatics combines computer science, statistics, mathematics, and engineering to analyze and interpret biological data.

14-Blood is a bodily fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.

15-Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science using methods of, and theories from, physics to study biological systems. Biophysics spans all scales of biological organization, from the molecular scale to whole organisms and ecosystems.

16-Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy.

17-The benthic zone is the ecological region at the lowest level of a body of water such as an ocean or a lake, including the sediment surface and some sub-surface layers. Organisms living in this zone are called benthos, e.g. the benthic invertebrate community, including crustaceans and polychaetes.

18-B cell – type of lymphocyte in the humoral immunity of the adaptive immune system.

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