1- India is the seventh largest country in the world and ranks second in population.
2-Bounded by the Great Himalayas in the north, India stretches southwards and at the Tropic of Cancer, tapers off into the Indian Ocean between the Bay of Bengal on the east and the Arabian Sea on the west.
3- India has a land frontier of about 15,200 km.
4-The total length of the coastline of the mainland, Lakshadweep Islands and Andaman and Nicobar Islands is 7,516.6 km.
5-A common border with India are Afghanistan and Pakistan to the north-west, China, Bhutan and Nepal to the north, Myanmar to the far east and Bangladesh to the east.
6- The country can be divided into six zones mainly North, South, East, West, Central and North-East zone.
7- India has 29 states and seven union territories.
8-Sri Lanka is separated from India by a narrow channel of sea formed by the Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar.
9-The river systems of India can be classified into four groups viz., (i) Himalayan rivers, (ii) Deccan rivers, (iii) Coastal rivers and (iv) Rivers of the inland drainage basin.
10-The Yamuna, the Ramganga, the Ghaghra, the Gandak, the Kosi, the Mahananda and the Sone are the important tributaries of the Ganga.
11-The Brahmaputra rises in Tibet, where it is known as Tsangpo and runs a long distance till it crosses over into India in Arunachal Pradesh under the name of Dihang.
12-The principal tributaries of Brahmaputra in India are the Subansiri, Jia Bhareli, Dhansiri, Puthimari, Pagladiya and the Manas.
13-The major east flowing rivers are Godavari, Krishna, Cauvery and Mahanadi.
14-Narmada and Tapti are major west flowing rivers.
15-India’s climate is affected by two seasonal winds—the north-east monsoon and the south-west monsoon.
16-The north-east monsoon commonly known as winter monsoon blows from land to sea
17-South-west monsoon known as summer monsoon blows from sea to land after crossing the Indian ocean, the Arabian sea and the Bay of Bengal.
18-India is rich in flora. Available data place India in the tenth position in the world and fourth in Asia in plant diversity.
19-The Census of India 2001, was historic and epoch making, being the first census of the twenty-first century and the third millennium.
20-Census 2011 was the 15th Census of India since 1872
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