General Studies

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General Studies –  Biology -Micro-organisms

1-The organisms which are minute and can not be seen with our naked eye and can be seen only with microscope are called micro-organisms. Viruses,bacteria, algae, fungi and protozoa are some of the examples of micro-organisms.

2-Microorganisms can be found in air, water, soil and all living organisms.

3-We can observe the following type of micro-organisms in pond water.
1- Algae : Chlamydomovas, Spirogyra, Ordogonium,Spiruliva etc.

2-Protozoa : Amolsa, Euglena, , Parawoecium,Vorticella.

3-Microorthopods : Cyclops,Daphnia etc.

4-Microbiology as a Science was born in 1674 when Anton Van Leeuwenhoek peered at a drop of lake water through a glass lens that he had carefully ground..

5-Leeuwenhoek built a single lens powerful microscope , which could magnify the object 300 times.

6-Diseases like polio, swine flu, conjunctivitis,small pox,chickenpox and Aids are caused by viruses.

7-Some micro-organisms are present inside the bodies of animals and plants.

8-Some micro-organisms grow on other organisms(parasites) and some may exist independendently.

9-Diseases like Malaria, Amoebiasis are caused by Protozoa.

10-The study of micro-organisms is called Microbiology.

11-Some of the micro-organisms are autotrophs while some are heterotrophs.

12-Viruses are special type of micro-organisms , which lie between living and non-living organisms.They can reproduce only in host living cells.

13- All micro-organisms are usually single celled organisms.

14-Cell of the micro-organisms contain a small amount of protoplasm and genetic material.

15-Based on the presence and absense of nucleus, micro-organisms are classified into  two types.

A- Eukaryotes(with nucleus) B- Prokaryotes(without nucleus)

16-Bacteria move with the help of flagella.

17-Fungus grow on paper,wood and it damages the clothes.

18-Some fungi decompose the dead plants and animals.

19-Algae are unicellular.colonial,filamentous and autotrophic.

20-Fungi are micro-organism which degrades dead bodies of plants and animals.

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