Our Environment & Eco System
1-An ecosystem consists of biotic componentscomprising living organisms and abiotic components comprising physical factors like temperature, rainfall, wind, soil and minerals
2-The Government of India has instituted an ‘Amrita Devi Bishnoi National Award for Wildlife Conservation’ in the memory of Amrita Devi Bishnoi, who in 1731 sacrificed her life along with 363 others for the protection of ‘khejri’ trees in Khejrali village near Jodhpur in Rajasthan.
3-The Chipko Andolan (‘Hug the Trees Movement’) originated from an incident in a remote village called Reni in Garhwal, high-up in the Himalayas during the early 1970s.
4-Parts of Himachal Pradesh had evolved a local system of canal irrigation called kulhs over four hundred years ago
5-Water harvesting is an age-old concept in India. Khadins, tanks and nadis in Rajasthan, bandharas and tals in Maharashtra, bundhis in Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, ahars and pynes in Bihar, kulhs in Himachal Pradesh, ponds in the Kandi belt of Jammu region, and eris (tanks) in Tamil Nadu, surangams in Kerala, and kattas in Karnataka are some of the ancient water harvesting
6-All the interacting organisms in an area together with the non-living constituents of the environment form an ecosystem.
7-The Ganga runs its course of over 2500 km from Gangotri in the Himalayas to Ganga Sagar in the Bay of Bengal
8-Other types of ecosystems are forests, ponds and lakes. These are natural ecosystems while gardens and crop-fields are humanmade (artificial) ecosystems.
9-The amount of ozone in the atmosphere began to drop sharply in the 1980s. This decrease has been linked to synthetic chemicals like chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) which are used as refrigerants and in fire extinguishers.
10-Each step or level of the food chain forms a trophic level. The autotrophs or the producers are at the first trophic level. They fix up the solar energy and make it available for
heterotrophs or the consumers. The herbivores or the primary consumers come at the second, small carnivores or the secondary consumers at the third and larger carnivores or
the tertiary consumers form the fourth trophic level