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Chemistry Terms -Glossary

1-electrolyte – a solution that conducts a certain amount of current and can be split categorically as weak and strong electrolytes.

2-electromagnetism – fields that have electric charge and electric properties that change the way that particles move and interact

3-electron – a subatomic particle with a net charge that is negative

4-energy – A system’s ability to do work

5-entropy – the amount of energy not available for work in a closed thermodynamic system (usually symbolized as S)

6-enzyme – a protein that speeds up (catalyses) a reaction

7-enthalpy – measure of the total energy of a thermodynamic system (usually symbolized as H)

8-Empirical Formula – also called the simplest formula, gives the simplest whole -number ratio of atoms of each element present in a compound.

9-electric charge – a measured property (coulombs) that determine electromagnetic interaction

10-electromotive force – a device that gains energy as electric charges pass through it.

11-electromagnetic radiation – a type of wave that can go through vacuums as well as material and classified as a self-propagating wave

12-electrochemical cell – using a chemical reaction’s current, electromotive force is made

13-electron shells – an orbital around the atom’s nucleus that has a fixed number electrons (usually two or eight)

14-element – an atom that is defined by its atomic number

15-freezing – phase transition from liquid to solid

16-Faraday’s law of electrolysis – a two part law that Michael Faraday published about electrolysis
A- the mass of a substance altered at an electrode during electrolysis is directly proportional to the quantity of electricity transferred at that electrode
B-the mass of an elemental material altered at an electrode is directly proportional to the element’s equivalent weight.

17-Frequency – number of cycles per unit of time. Unit: 1 hertz = 1 cycle per 1 second

18-Faraday constant – a unit of electrical charge widely used in electrochemistry and equal to ~ 96,500 coulombs.
It represents 1 mol of electrons, or the Avogadro number of electrons: 6.022 × 1023 electrons. F = 96 485.339 9(24) C/mol

19-Gas – particles that fill their container though have no definite shape or volume

20-Gay-Lussac’s Law – The expression Gay-Lussac’s law is used for each of the two relationships named after the French chemist Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and which concern the properties of gases, though it is more usually applied to his law of combining volumes

21-galvanic cell – battery made up of electrochemical with two different metals connected by salt bridge

22-geochemistry – the chemistry of and chemical composition of the Earth

23-Gibbs energy – value that indicates the spontaneity of a reaction (usually symbolized as G)

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