Biology – Diseases -Bacterial, Fungal -Important Points

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Biology

Diseases – Fungal Diseases in Humans

1- Moniliasis is one of the most common opportunistic diseases in AIDS patients

2-Candida albicans, a fungus is the etiological agent of moniliasis.

Moniliasis is also known as mucocutaneous candidiasis.

3-Pigeon and Bat feces can carry Histoplasma capsulatum, the fungal agent of histoplasmosis.

The infection is transmitted through the inhalation of contaminated dust in places visited by these animals (caves, tunnels, squares, roofs, etc.).

4-Coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, or South American blastomycosis, sporotrichosis and onychomycosis (nail mycosis) are the main human diseases caused by fungi in immunocompetent patients .

5-Other fungal diseases such as systemic candidiasis, aspergillosis, cryptococcosis and other opportunistic diseases may also occur in immuno-deficient patients.

Diseases -Human diseases caused by bacteria

1-The main human bacterial infections transmitted by respiratory secretions (sneezes, coughing) and saliva are bacterial pneumonia, tuberculosis, whooping cough (pertussis), diphtheria, and bacterial meningitis.

2-Gonorrhea and syphilis are bacterial infections transmitted by blood or sexual contact

3-The bubonic plague, endemic typhus, and leptospirosis diseases are transmitted by animal vectors.

4-Some bacterial diseases transmitted through the fecal-oral route and contaminated food are cholera and typhoid fever.

5-Hansen’s disease, possibly transmitted by saliva and contact with injured skin and mucosae are other important bacterial infections.

6- Trachoma, is an eye disease transmitted by ocular secretions; and tetanus, which is transmitted when the etiological agent enters the body through skin wounds.

7-Tuberculosis is a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a bacteria which attacks other organs of the body but mainly the lungs, leading to respiratory failure

8-Tuberculosis is highly contagious, transmitted via the air through sneezes and coughs from a person with the active disease.

Transmission is common between members of the same family or even in work environments

9-The vaccine against tuberculosis is called BCG (bacillus Calmette-Guérin).
The vaccine is made of attenuated TB bacteria.

10-Pneumonia is the generic name for the inflammation of the lungs. Besides bacterial pneumonia, pneumonia can be caused by viruses, fungi, toxins, etc.

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