1-Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells.
2-Plasma constitutes 55% of blood fluid, is mostly water (92% by volume), and contains dissipated proteins, glucose, mineral ions, hormones, carbon dioxide.
3- Albumin is the main protein in plasma.
4-The blood cells are mainly red blood cells (also called RBCs or erythrocytes), white blood cells (also called WBCs or leukocytes) and platelets (also called thrombocytes).
5-The most abundant cells in vertebrate blood are red blood cells. These contain hemoglobin, an iron-containing protein.
6- hemoglobin facilitates oxygen transport by reversibly binding to this respiratory gas and greatly increasing its solubility in blood.
7-Vertebrate blood is bright red when its hemoglobin is oxygenated and dark red when it is deoxygenated.
8- Insects and some mollusks use a fluid called hemolymph instead of blood.
9-White blood cells help to resist infections and parasites.
10- Platelets are important in the clotting of blood.
11-Blood is circulated around the body through blood vessels by the pumping action of the heart.
12-In animals with lungs, arterial blood carries oxygen from inhaled air to the tissues of the body.
13- Venous blood carries carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism produced by cells, from the tissues to the lungs to be exhaled.
14- In terms of anatomy and histology, blood is considered a specialized form of connective tissue.
15-Blood accounts for 7% of the human body weight with an average density of approximately 1060 kg/m3.
16-The average adult has a blood volume of roughly 5 litres.
17- By volume, the red blood cells constitute about 45% of whole blood, the plasma about 54.3%, and white cells about 0.7%.
18-Blood pH is regulated to stay within the narrow range of 7.35 to 7.45, making it slightly basic.
19-Blood that has a pH below 7.35 is too acidic, whereas blood pH above 7.45 is too basic.
20-The blood circulation was famously described by William Harvey in 1628.
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