Biology,

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Biology-Important Points

1.  Cerebrum is the largest part of the brain.
 
2. The brain of adults weights approximately 1300 to 1400  grams.

3. Devil fish is common name of octopus.

4. . Directional movements in plants is responsible to specific stimuli are called tropic movements

5. Insulin which regulates blood sugar is a protein hormone, secreted by pancreas.

6. . Synapse is the functional region of contact between two neurons. It transmits the neural impulse between two neurons

7. Coconut oil does not contain any essential fatty acid.

8. Reflexes are fast, immediate, automatic and involuntary responses of the body. They occur without thinking and brain is not involved

9. Vitamin A is formed in the liver from β-carotene, an orange- yellow pigment of carrots. Carotene also occurs in maize, spinach and papaya. A large quantity of vitamin A can be stored in the liver, enough to supply a person for many month.

10. Vitamin D facilitates absorption of calcium and phosphorus by intestine and their retention in the body and their utilization for bone and teeth formation.

11. Milk is one food item which contains both calcium and phosphorus.

12. Kidneys are the chief excretory organs of human body. Lungs, Skin, Liver have their own specific functions, but they carry out excretion as a secondary function

13. Collagen is the most abundant protein in human body.

14. Dietary requirement of protein increases during lactation.

15. Iron is present in myoglobin.

16. Mottling of teeth occurs due to presence of fluorine element in drinking water.

17. Dermatosis and cracking of skin at angles of mouth are indicative of riboflavin deficiency.

18. Jaundice or hepatitis is the diseases of liver. Hepatitis is spread mostly by food and water contaminated with hepatitis virus.

19. Pellagra is caused due to deficiency of vitamin niacin.

20. White blood cells make up 10% of the total volume of the blood.

21. Tube feet is the locomotory organ of starfish.

22. Typhoid is most common infectious or communicable disease of India. It is caused by rod-shaped and motile bacterium, called Salmonella typhi which is commonly found in the intestine of human beings. Symptoms are fever, delirium, slow pulse, abdominal tenderness and rose coloured rash.

23. Kwashiorkor & marasmus diseases are caused by severe protein deficiency.

24. The function of protective proteins called antibodies is to help fight infection in our body. Gamma globulins present in blood is an example of protective proteins

25. Ammonia is the most poisonous of all waste products of metabolism

26. The Central Research Institute, Kasauli is the biggest and most important producer of immunoniologicals, for example DPT, anti-thphoid, anti-rabies, yellow fever vaccine and cholera vaccine.

27-The common name for Ascaris is round worm.

28-Undigestible fibrous material present in the food is called roughage. Their main function is to absorb a great amount of water and to helps retain water in body :& adds bulk to the food and prevents constipation. The main source of roughage in human body is salad vegetables and fruits with skin and high fibre content.

29-Respiration in arthropods occurs through gills, book lungs and trachea.

30-The bite of rabid dog and some other mammals such as monkey, cats, or rabbits may cause rabies, which is fatal. Patients develop fear of water, and as such disease is also called hydrophobia. Rabies can be treated with Pasteur’s treatment.

31-Sunflower seed oil contains maximum content of linoleic acid

32-Placenta is a tissue formed by the cells from the embryo and the mother. It is formed around 12 weeks of pregnancy and becomes an important structure for nourishment of the embryo

33-Malaria is a communicable diseases. It spreads from infected person to healthy person by the bite of female anopheles. A drug named quinine, which is extracted from the bark of Cinchona tree, is used to treat a person suffering from malaria.

34-Tuberculosis was first discovered by German scientist Robert Koch. It is an infectious disease which is communicable from one person to another directly or indirectly. It can affect all parts of body such as lungs, lymph, glands, bones intestines etc. BCG vaccine gives considerable protection against T.B.

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